Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes IS 2054
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lian Joseph on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IS 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Courtney Thomas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Politics in International Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Intro to World Politics (Lecture 2) Professor Thomas 8/24/16 Before there were States States and nations are relatively new political inventions There is no international system before there are states o Most people were nomadic with tribes; all connected by blood/kinship Communities before the First Agricultural Revolution were stagnant o Takes societies out of primordial communities into something else (political conflict) o Lacked a steady supply of food; on the verge of starvation which results in little to no population growth o Primordial communities: small groups of people linked by familial ties of blood and marriage (individual does not matter only group survival) Legitimacy derives from common ancestry Governed by patrimonial rule Confront resource scarcity Focused on intergenerational survival Disciplined by honor and shame in order to carefully control and husband resources Ex: Amazonian village Inhube(?); fire ant gloves ritual** (signifies courage, manhood, worthiness of taking on adult roles) **significance: right of passage; expresses suffering and creates strong identity between tribe/non tribe members; willing to suffer > demonstrates trust within the community Second Agricultural Revolution (starts in Britain) brings enormous agricultural growth and transforms everything Led to the rise of what we now call sovereign states o States to run their own political, social, and economic policies without interference from other states o Later develop into nations (groups of people who belong together and believe they have a right to be governed by their own political institutions) Common history, identity, feelings that make them feel united and belong (“imagined communities”) Transformation First Agricultural Revolution challenged kinship legitimacy and discipline o Food surpluses led to the establishment of River Valley Civilizations and early empires o Societies of strangers linked to destiny but not by blood required new forms of governance and legitimacy to resolve conflict, defend territory, manage resources, and extract taxes/conscription o Dynastic rule perpetuated the rule of blood but in the name of dominant blood lines Ex: Guns, Germs, and Steels; studied European dominance and its effects on African societies Emergence of States The Second Agricultural Revolution led to the rise of sovereign states across Europe o Classical monarchs became unable to extract and rule in the name of blood o Legitimacy attached to the consent of the governed rather than the blood of the governor Paralleled by the rise of imagined political communities bound by culture, language States, Nations, etc. States: territories endowed with sovereignty and legal status in the international community to grant citizenship and govern Nations: imagined community of people who believe they belong together and that they have the right to be ruled by a government NationState: a nation governed by a sovereign state StatelessNation: a group of people that believe that they should be governed by their own people, however, do not have any legitimate sovereignty (ex: Kurds, Cechnya in Russia, and the Tamils); o Tend to have insurrection, ethnic cleansing, political turmoil, violence, grotesque political instability etc Modern Africa Europeans (location: Berlin) in the 1800’s sat down to divide up the territories of Africa o Spent the next 50 years using African labor and resources (colonization) in order to politically and economically transform their own governments Then left the state of Africa into economic, social, and political turmoil Ignored the hundreds of different kinds of ethnic groups who all compete for wealth, legitimacy, resources, and ultimately survival Most groups are nomadic nowadays meaning that the sovereignty of the state that they’re in isn’t legitimate to them Ex: PanAfrica; common African passport to unite the African people Makes more sense for postcolonial times than the boundaries that were meant to be used as a legitimate representation Interesting thought: had the plague been worse for the Europeans and wiped out the majority of the population, the subjugation/colonialism/violence would never have happened and Africa would have been able to develop on their own
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