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Week 2 Notes

by: Lian Joseph
Lian Joseph
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

These notes will cover our first exam
Intro to World Politics
Courtney Thomas
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lian Joseph on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IS 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Courtney Thomas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Politics in International Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 09/01/16
Intro to World Politics (Lecture 2) Professor Thomas 8/24/16 Before there were States  States and nations are relatively new political inventions  There is no international system before there are states  o Most people were nomadic with tribes; all connected by blood/kinship  Communities before the First Agricultural Revolution were stagnant o Takes societies out of primordial communities into something else (political  conflict)  o Lacked a steady supply of food; on the verge of starvation which results in little to no population growth o Primordial communities: small groups of people linked by familial ties of blood  and marriage (individual does not matter only group survival)  Legitimacy derives from common ancestry   Governed by patrimonial rule   Confront resource scarcity   Focused on intergenerational survival   Disciplined by honor and shame in order to carefully control and husband  resources   Ex: Amazonian village Inhube(?); fire ant gloves ritual** (signifies courage, manhood, worthiness of taking on adult roles)   **significance: right of passage; expresses suffering and  creates strong identity between tribe/non tribe members;  willing to suffer ­­­> demonstrates trust within the  community  Second Agricultural Revolution (starts in Britain) brings enormous agricultural growth and  transforms everything  Led to the rise of what we now call sovereign states  o States to run their own political, social, and economic policies without  interference from other states  o Later develop into nations (groups of people who belong together and believe  they have a right to be governed by their own political institutions)  Common history, identity, feelings that make them feel united and belong  (“imagined communities”) Transformation  First Agricultural Revolution challenged kinship legitimacy and discipline  o Food surpluses led to the establishment of River Valley Civilizations and early  empires  o Societies of strangers linked to destiny but not by blood required new forms of  governance and legitimacy to resolve conflict, defend territory, manage resources, and extract taxes/conscription o Dynastic rule perpetuated the rule of blood but in the name of dominant blood  lines   Ex: Guns, Germs, and Steels; studied European dominance and its effects  on African societies  Emergence of States  The Second Agricultural Revolution led to the rise of sovereign states across Europe  o Classical monarchs became unable to extract and rule in the name of blood o Legitimacy attached to the consent of the governed rather than the blood of the  governor   Paralleled by the rise of imagined political communities bound by culture,  language States, Nations, etc.  States: territories endowed with sovereignty and legal status in the international  community to grant citizenship and govern   Nations: imagined community of people who believe they belong together and that they  have the right to be ruled by a government   Nation­State: a nation governed by a sovereign state   Stateless­Nation: a group of people that believe that they should be governed by their  own people, however, do not have any legitimate sovereignty (ex: Kurds, Cechnya in  Russia, and the Tamils); o Tend to have insurrection, ethnic cleansing, political turmoil, violence, grotesque  political instability etc  Modern Africa  Europeans (location: Berlin) in the 1800’s sat down to divide up the territories of Africa  o Spent the next 50 years using African labor and resources (colonization) in order  to politically and economically transform their own governments   Then left the state of Africa into economic, social, and political turmoil   Ignored the hundreds of different kinds of ethnic groups who all  compete for wealth, legitimacy, resources, and ultimately survival  Most groups are nomadic nowadays meaning that the sovereignty  of the state that they’re in isn’t legitimate to them  Ex: Pan­Africa; common African passport to unite the African people   Makes more sense for post­colonial times than the boundaries that  were meant to be used as a legitimate representation  Interesting thought: had the plague been worse for the Europeans  and wiped out the majority of the population, the  subjugation/colonialism/violence would never have happened and  Africa would have been able to develop on their own


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