CSD 216: Week 2 Notes
CSD 216: Week 2 Notes CSD 216
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CSD 216 at University of Mississippi taught by Lisa Fratesi Ivy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Chapter 2 The Science and Theory of Language Development Terms to Know: Linguists – view language as a developmental and ecological phenomenon Psycholinguistics – the cognitive processes involved with developing, processing, and producing human language What is cognition? (The act of knowing.) There are specific mental processes within cognition: o Comprehension o Inferring o Decision making o Planning o Learning All people with mental retardation have impaired cognition, but not all people with impaired cognition are mentally retarded. Who studied language development? Socrates – the founder of western philosophy Plato – Greek philosopher and mathematician Aristotle – student of Plato Victor of Aveyron There was a feral child who lived his entire childhood alone in the woods in France before he was found. He was captured, but later escaped. He was soon captured a second time but escaped again. Several years later he came out of the woods on his own (perhaps due to the kindness shown to him by other humans). He was estimated to be around 12 years old. He lacked speech and food preferences, and the many scars he had showed he lived in the wild for the majority of his life. He was then taken to an institute in Paris to be studied. Based on the research conducted on the boy, a medical student determined that there are two things that separate humans from animals: empathy and language. Genie In 1970 an American feral child was discovered. She spent the first 13 years of her life locked in a dark bedroom strapped to a potty chair at the hand of her father. Finally, her mother had the courage to flee for help. Genie is the victim of the most severe case of abuse and social isolation to date. Once she was rescued, she was taken to UCLA (she was still in diapers at this point) to be studied. She was found to have the motor skills of a baby, knowing few words such as “stop it” and “no more.” She was later able to express herself in sign language and 23 word sentences. When her father was charged with child abuse, he committed suicide. This case gave scientists the chance to test the Critical Period Hypothesis proposed by Eric Lenneberg, which states that humans are unable to correctly learn grammar after puberty because of the lateralization of the brain. Lenneberg also gathered data on how many words children understand and use at what age. The hypothesis was proven correct. Lateralization – this refers to the left and right hemispheres of the brain Left Right Grammar and vocabulary Emotional content of language If a child is deprived of speech (parent If a child is deprived of sensory experiences, doesn’t talk to the child, for example), the right brain and central nervous system vocabulary would not develop in the left brain would not develop Dr. Paul Broca discovered in 1861 that the left frontal lobe is responsible for speech articulation. Carl Wernicke discovered in 1874 that the left upper temporal lobe is responsible for language comprehension. History of Research Mid 1950s: Revolution in child language studies o Psycholinguistics – see definition above o Sociolinguistics – the cultural influence on language 1960s: Characterized by studies of grammar 1970s: Research addressed children 1980s and 1990s: Studies included all linguistic topics 21 Century: Cross cultural focus What is a theory? A claim or hypothesis that is repeatedly scientifically tested Science can build on, refine and replace theories with cumulative researchbased knowledge Nature vs. Nurture Nature – infants arrive prewired to acquire language Nurture – infants learn through experiences or the environment Many theories often incorporate both Nurture (Empiricist) Theory Empiricists believe that all knowledge is gained through experience In their opinion, babies arrive as a “blank slate” Nature (Nativist) Theory Nativists believe that knowledge is innate, or that babies are born with knowledge They also believe that knowledge is genetically transmitted. In other words, smarter parents often have smart children. Jacques Rousseau told parents to speak to their children correctly (how you would speak to any other adult) and to model your language for them – DO NOT BABY TALK Behaviorism B.F. Skinner – known as the “Grandaddy” of Applied Behavior Analysis and study of verbal behavior. He is one of the most influential American psychologists of the 20 century Ivan Petrovich Pavlov – he was a Russian psychologist who first described classical conditioning We use behaviorism in speech and language therapy every day by reinforcing desired behavior or eliminating a behavior by negative reinforcement Behaviorists stress the importance of the environment as the critical and most important factor in the acquisition of language, due to the fact that children imitate the language models in their environment Operant Conditioning (and other terms) Operant – any behavior whose frequency can be affected by the responses that follow it The result of this behavior is what defines learning Positive reinforcement – giving something positive for performing a desired behavior Negative reinforcement – removing the positive stimulus Punishment – giving something negative Extinction – when an ignored stimuli is produced less frequently and eventually disappears Principles of Behavioral Theory Stimulus is provided Response given Imitation of response Reinforcement For example, a child with autism repeatedly bangs on the fridge. The mother opens it and pulls out the milk and holds it near her face (stimulus). She looks at the child and says “Do you want your milk?” (response). The child repeats the word milk (imitation). She pours a glass of milk and says “Very good!” (reinforcement). Shaping and Chaining Shaping – shaping behaviors in small steps that gradually approximate the target behavior o Wawa – wada – wata – water o This is used when the target behavior does not yet exist Chaining – sequencing behavior in such a way that each step serves as a stimulus for the next. In other words, it is a series of events that build upon one another o Think of making a sandwich – there are many steps that lead to the final result Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Continuous – a constant delivery of reinforcement 2. Fixed – a set amount of work must be completed before reinforcement is given 3. Variable – the amount of work needed for reinforcement varies Social Interactionist Vygotsky – stressed social interaction He believed that knowledge exists socially then psychologically Also believed that language and cognition come together at about two years of age when “thought becomes verbal and speech becomes rational.” Zone of Proximal Development – the difference between a child’s actual development and his level of potential o This characterizes the process of maturing
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