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Chapter 24 Notes

by: Kaeli

Chapter 24 Notes BIOL 102 001

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About this Document

Notes cover the topic of speciation and the various methods by which it occurs
Biological Principles II
Mihaly Czako
Class Notes
speciation, Biology, evolution, microevolution, Macroevolution




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaeli on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 102 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Mihaly Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
Chapter 24 Notes  Speciation o The process of forming new species o Consists of   Morphology  Physiology  Behavior  Biochemistry  DNA o Allopatric  Separate gene pools  Locations prevent interbreeding  Caused by genetic drift o Sympatric  Same habitat, different evolutionary course  Divergence is not location based  Caused by reduced gene flow by…  Polyploidy o More chromosomes than normal o Cytokinesis does not complete and chromosomes do not  separate o Must be a viable organism to count  Odd # of chromosomes are not viable  Sterile organisms may experience a reproductive  error and create a new viable species   Usually meiotic o Allopolyploid  New species originating from 2 different parent  species o Mostly asexual organisms o At least 5 examples have originated since 1850  Example­ T. Dubius o A lot of crops, corn wheat, oats, cotton, potatoes are  polyploids  Sexual selection o Mates of different phenotypes are preferred  Creates new species  Example­ P. pundamilla & P. nyererei in  Lake Victoria  Habitat differentiation  o Appearance of new ecological niches  Example­ maggot fly can live on hawthorn trees and apple trees, may lead to apple only flies o Current questions  How long does it have to take?  Can range from 4,000 to 40 million years o Average of 6.5 million  How many genes have to differ?  Only one­ if it’s important enough o Pollination differences can lead to this difference  Microevolution o Changes in allele frequencies  Macroevolution o Evolutionary changes above the species­specific level o Caused by many speciation and extinction events o Ongoing cycle Speciation Extinction  Species  Group of populations o Biological species  Potential to interbreed  Produce fertile offspring  Do not successfully breed with other populations  Gene flow between populations holds them together genetically  Species can have diversity o Morphological species   Structural features  Objective  Asexual inclusive o Ecological species  Terms of ecological niche  Emphasizes disruptive selection o Phylogenetic concept  Smallest group on phylogenetic tree  Difficult to determine degree of difference required for separate species o Limits of species concept  Cannot apply to fossils or prokaryotes  Emphasizes absence of gene flow  Can occur when barrier is broken down  o Example: “Grolar bear”  Reproductive isolation o Barriers that impede two species from producing viable offspring  Can be before or after reproduction  Barriers are subjective  Canyon is a barrier for mice, but not birds o Hybrids are the exception o Prezygotic isolation  Pre­mating attempt  Zygote won’t form  Temporal (time­based) isolation o Example: nocturnal and not cannot be active and thus  cannot mate  Habitat isolation o Distance divides species o Leads to allopatric speciation o More habitat isolation leads to more species  Behavioral isolation  Post­mating attempt  Mechanical isolation  Genetic isolation o Postzygotic isolation  Zygote formed but…  Reduced or no fertility  Reduced or no viability   Hybrid breakdown 


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