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Week two: Lecture # 2 for NST 10

by: Nadelyn Lim

Week two: Lecture # 2 for NST 10 NUSCTX 10

Marketplace > University of California Berkeley > NUSCTX 10 > Week two Lecture 2 for NST 10
Nadelyn Lim

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These notes cover Lecture # 2 (Week 2)!
Introduction to Human Nutrition
Nastaran Faghihnia
Class Notes
Macronutrients, micronutrients, Nutrigenomics, VItamins and MInerals, nutrition
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nadelyn Lim on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUSCTX 10 at University of California Berkeley taught by Nastaran Faghihnia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
LECTURE # 2 CHAPTER 1 Macronutrients: Needed in large amounts Carbohydrates - simple sugars - includes sugars and starches - 4 kcal/gram because they are oxidized easily - Fiber - does not provide energy for the body but it still important for healthy digestion Lipids - biological molecule that is insoluble in water. - triglycerides that are found in the body (adipose tissues) - Highly concentrated form of energy that is stored in the body - 9 kcal/gram (most energy yield) - saturated fatty acids = disease; unsaturated fatty acids = prevention of disease Proteins - amino acids - building blocks of protein - Rich sources of proteins: red meat, beans, fish, chicken - a polymer of amino acids (20 different ones) - the sequence of the amino acids will determine the function and specificity of the protein - Required for growth, maintenance and repair for the body - supplies energy - 4 kcal/gram (about the same as carbohydrates because they are almost oxidized the same way) - Each of these macronutrients can be metabolized for energy Water - 60% of our body is water - needed in large amounts - does not provide energy as it has no kcal. Micronutrients: Needed in small amounts - provides no energy but is still needed for optimal function of the body - Vitamins and minerals - Good health and in small amounts contrary to macronutrients that should be consumed in big amounts - Contained in fresh foods Functions of Nutrients: Energy - Provides energy for a healthy body. - Biochemical reactions (Metabolism) release the energies contained in the macronutrients for bodily functions - If more energy is consumed that is needed then body weight will increase. (Calories In vs. Calories Out) Forming Structures - weight of the body is due to water, fat and protein - macronutrients help to form and maintain the shape and structure of the body - form ligaments and tendons that hold bones together and attach muscles to bones - lipids and proteins make up the wall around cells. Regulating Body Processes - Homeostasis is the optimal performance and state of the body - Metabolism - Body process that aid the breakdown of food into energy - Water regulates temperature - Protein, vitamins and minerals help speed up or slow down metabolic reactions. Nutrigenomics - the study of how diet affects genes and how genetic variation can affect the impact of nutrients on health. - The genes that we inherit play a huge role in establishing metabolic homeostasis. Food Availability - Geography - Transportation and mobility of food - Available income - Food storage and preparation equipment (low income people don’t have the opportunity to choose food other than what is convenient at the time) Cultural and Personal Background - Religious dietary laws - Ethnic menu preferences - Social acceptability (cultural) - Personal preference - Psychological and emotional factors (Eating for reward) - Health concerns Nutrient Density - measure of the nutrient a food provides compared to its energy content. Eat a Variety of Foods - Foods with a variety of colors can provide all of the nutrients that is needed for the body to function properly - Colorful rainbow of fruits and vegetables can contain different phytochemicals that provide different nutrients. Balance your choices - there is no good food/bad food. - calories in and calories out balance Moderation - don’t eat too much of anything like energy, fat, sugar, sodium or alcohol. Understanding Science - Nutrition is Science and there is definitely a connection between food intake and health. Good experiment - control groups are a standard of comparison - single blind study: subjects do not know which treatment they were studying - Double blind study: neither the subject nor the investigator know which treatment is being received. - Peer review system helps correct repeated errors Type of nutritional studies - clinical trials CHAPTER 2 Nutrition recommendations for the Modern Diet - People need to eat to survive. They need to eat the right kinds of food - WHO (World Health Organizations ) make international recommendations Dietary Reference Intakes - nutrition recommendations needed to satisfy a variety of needs - Six nutrient groups - Designed for planning and assessing diets of healthy people. Dietary Guidelines for Americans - weight management - physical activity - increase low fat dairy - use oils rather than solid fats - increase fruit and vegetables - increase potassium, dietary fiber, calcium and Vitamin D


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