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Week 2 Lecture # 3 for NST 10

by: Nadelyn Lim

Week 2 Lecture # 3 for NST 10 NUSCTX 10

Marketplace > University of California Berkeley > NUSCTX 10 > Week 2 Lecture 3 for NST 10
Nadelyn Lim

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These notes cover Lecture # 3 of Week 2!
Introduction to Human Nutrition
Nastaran Faghihnia
Class Notes
mouth, Enzymes, Intestines, digestion, absorption, Esophagus, stomach, saliva, Hormones, Excretions, organs, Systems, organism, Processes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nadelyn Lim on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUSCTX 10 at University of California Berkeley taught by Nastaran Faghihnia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
LECTURE # 3 CHAPTER 2 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Foods to Increase: - Increase fruits and vegetables - half of grain servings are whole grain - increase low fat dairy - seafood because it is a great source of protein and contains good fats - oils rather than solid fats - Vitamins and minerals Foods to Reduce - saturated and trans fats, processed foods, cholesterol, sodium, sugary beverages Building Healthy Eating Patterns: - DASH eating plan - reducing sodium intake - Mediterranean Eating pattern - concentrates on fish, seafood, whole grains - MyPlate - provides variety and correct visualization of appropriate serving sizes Empty Calories - No nutrients for optimal homeostasis but only calories. Food Labels - Contains nutrition facts like ingredients, amount of carbohydrates, proteins, fats per serving Assessing Nutritional Health - Can help determine if their intake is healthy - Can be assessed by a nutritionist to devise a food plan that will improve the nutritional status of the individual. - Goal: Achieving the optimal amount of vitamins and minerals for the body. - Additional information like height, weight, genetic influences are needed to determine the nutritional status of an individual. CHAPTER 3 Digestion and Absorption - important for breaking down food for energy -Atoms - single molecules - Molecules - connected atoms together that need to be broken down for correct digestion and absorption. - Cells - Molecules that are binded together. - Tissues - Comprised of the component part of an organ like the stomach ; part of an organ system - Organ system - Organs that are put together for a specific function in the body. ex. Skeletal system, digestive system - Organism - Everything above combined for correct functioning of the body. Overview of the Digestion System - Goal: To break down food into smaller particles to be used as energy by the body. - Digestion: process of breaking down food for absorption. - Absorption: process of taking in substances for the body - Gastrointestinal tract: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines - Feces - unabsorbed food that is considered waste - When one organ is inefficient then the whole digestive system is inefficient Overview of the process in which food passes through: Mouth: chews food - Salivary Gland - produces saliva to start the digestion process ; Amylase (starch- digesting enzyme) will be released to aid the break down of starch. Pharynx - swallows chewed food Esophagus: Moves food to the stomach Stomach : Churns food and secretes a protein digesting enzyme ; has acid to aid break down of food and facilitate absorption Small intestines: completes digestion by absorbing the nutrients into the blood and lymph Large intestines: Absorbs water and vitamins and minerals ; where waste material passes through Anus : Opening to allow waste to pass unabsorbed material in the form of feces Accessory Organs that aids in digestion: Liver - makes bile which aids in digestion and absorption of fat Pancreas - behind the liver and connects to the small intestines ; releases bicarbonate to neutralize intestinal contents and acids ; produces enzymes to digest and break down macronutrients ; Lipase - enzyme used to break down fats. Gallbladder - stores biles and releases it into the small intestines as needed ; acts like a detergent or dishwashing soap to get rid of residue of fats and lipids in the small intestines and allows for better digestion of fatty and rich foods. - Bile does not break down fats, Bile merely disrupts the coagulation of fat for better digestion and break down. Digestive Secretions - Enzymes - not destroyed when they catalyze reactions; speeds up chemical reactions ; proteins that have specific substrate that they recognize and act upon. ex. Lipase will only work on lipids, salivary amylase will only break down starch , Pepsin will breaks down protein in the stomach, Trypsin will break down proteins in the small intestines into amino acids - Mucus - moistens and lubricates to protect the GI tract Digestive Hormones Gastrin - produced by stomach and secretion of HCL and pepsinogen to increase gastric motility and emptying. - Pepsinogen is a longer version of Pepsin ; Will turn into it’s shorter active form (Pepsin) as it enters an acidic environment like the stomach. In depth observation of the organs used in digestion: Mouth - Cephalic Phase : sense of smell and sight of food that causes us to salivate and causes stomach to grumble - The mouth is the entry food for food into the digestive tract - Secretes Lysozyme that will kill any bacteria taken in with food - Chewing mechanically breaks down food and is the start of digestion Pharynx and Epiglottis - Epiglottis - flap that prevents the food from travelling into the trachea (wind pipe) that may cause choking; leads the food down the esophagus safely and on the route to the stomach. Esophagus - Makes it’s way down to the stomach - Gastroesophageal Sphincter - separates the esophagus from the stomach - Peristalsis propels food to the stomach Stomach - Three layers of muscle : longitudinal, circular, diagonal that moves to churn the food - HCL and low pH : to mechanically disrupt food and creates a partially degraded food (Chyme) - Passes a sphincter to enter the small intestines Brain - the brain is working together with the digestive system to allow for the correct timing of secretions of various hormones that are involved in the process of digestion - Hormones will sense where the food is and communicate to the brain when to secrete digestive aids Small Intestines - Duodenum - contains Microvilli which are considered to greatly increase the surface area of the small intestines for better absorption. - Segementation Process - food that left the stomach (Chyme) is broken down into much smaller pieces by hormones from the pancreas to promote the digestion of proteins into amino acids, lipids into glycerol and starches into their mono and disaccharide forms. - Extracts the beneficial nutrients from the food and transports useless parts into the large intestines for excretion Gallbladder , Liver and Pancreas - Secretes enzymes into the small intestines for better digestion Digestion Nutrient Breakdown - Sugars, starches, fiber —-di- and monosaccharides —simple sugars —blood and lymph - polypeptides —amino acids —blood and lymph - Large lipid droplets —short chain fatty acids and long chain fatty acids —lipid transport particles —blood and lymph Nutrient Absorption - Fatty acids travel into the microvilli using simple diffusion. - Water molecules will distribution through osmosis - Fructose can enter using facilitated diffusion (proteins in the microvilli from the lumen into the intestinal cell) - Amino acids uses active transport which uses energy ATP to absorb the nutrient that we need.


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