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Abnormal Psychology Week 1 Notes

by: Brittany Lopez

Abnormal Psychology Week 1 Notes Psy 22

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Brittany Lopez

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About this Document

Discuss what Psychological abnormality is and it's history
Abnormal Psychology
Carol Kimbrough
Class Notes
Psychology, Abnormal psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Lopez on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 22 at Hartnell College taught by Carol Kimbrough in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Hartnell College.

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Date Created: 09/01/16
What is psychological abnormality? The Four D’s  Deviance: Different, extreme, unusual o Subjectively deviant o Statistically deviant o Culturally deviant  Multi­cultural perspectives necessary  Specific circumstances must be considered  Distress: Reports of discomfort or symptoms that are unpleasant or upsetting o Do signs/symptoms interfere with person’s capacity to function adequately? o What if the individual does not feel distress? (Ex. Manic episode or delusions of  grandeur, the “ice cube society”)  Dysfunction: Causes interruption of activities of daily living (ADLs) and role  responsibilities o Maladaptive behavior o How would we evaluate individuals like Gandhi or Cesar Chavez while fasting or  depriving themselves for a social cause?  Danger: Risk of harm to self or others o Behaviors may be careless, hostile or confused  Often popularized by the media o Research suggests that danger is the exception rather than the rule Integrated Definitions (Strupp and Hadley, 1977)  No single criterion seems adequate, multiple perspectives approach using vantage points  of: o Society o The individual o The mental health professional DSM­IV­TR Mental Disorder: “A clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that  occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress (e.g. a painful symptom) or  disability (i.e. impairment in one or more important areas of functioning) or an important loss of  freedom. In addition, this syndrome or pattern must not be merely an expectable and culturally  sanctioned response to a particular event (ex. Death of a loved one.)”­APA, DSM­IV­TR, xxxi,  2000 A Look at the Past  Prehistoric Times o Limitations: Indirect evidence  Demonology: Abnormal physical and mental problems were caused by  evil spirits that gained access to the person’s body  Demonic possession  Sorcery  An offended ancestor o Victim was partially to blame o Tx measures: Trephination, exorcism  Greek and Roman Beliefs (500 BC – AD 500) o Mental disorder recognized at this time included:  Melancholia (depression)  Mania (state of euphoria and increased activity)  Dementia (Intellectual decline  Hysteria (presence of a physical ailment with no apparent physical cause)  Delusions (blatantly false beliefs)  Hallucinations (experiencing imagined sights or sounds as real) o Hippocrates: (460­377 BC) “Father of modern medicine”  One of the first to believe that illness had natural (internal) causes; more  human treatment o “Humoral theory” of disease: Symptoms were caused by imbalances of body  fluids:  Yellow bile (High mania)  Black bile (High melancholia)  Phlegm  Blood (Bloodletting, leaches)  Europe and the Middle Ages: Reversion to Demonology (AD 500­1350) o Collapse of Roman Empire and rise of religious dogma o Church rejected scientific forms of investigation and controlled all education  Illness was a punishment for sin  Unusual behavior was the work of the devil  Tx: Confession (or torture), repentance, exorcism o 15 ­17  Centuries: Witchcraft!  Often accused were religious and social reformers  Some victims may have had mental disorders  Hundreds of thousands of victims burned, beheaded or otherwise killed th th  The Renaissance: A Rise of Humanism? (14 ­16  Centuries) o Resurgence of rational and scientific inquiry  Belief in human welfare  Worth and uniqueness of the individual  Decline in beliefs of demonology o Joham Weyer (1515­1588)  German physician, first to specialize in mental disorders, “father of  psychopathology”  Book challenging the execution of individuals as witches resulted in him  being discredited by state and religious leaders Rise of Asylums  Old hospitals were converted to asylums for “mentally disturbed”  Patients were chained, caged, starved, whipped  Exhibitions for public entertainment (Bedlam {Bethlehem Hospital in London} and  Lunatic’s Tower in Vienna were favorites) th th The Reform Movement (18 ­19  Centuries)  Philippe Pinel (1745­1826, Paris) o If People were “mentally ill” and not possessed, then perhaps they should be  treated as though they were sick o His belief in human treatment resulted in patients being unchained and allowed to  move freely about hospital groundsImprovement!  William Tuke (1732­1819) o Provided similar reforms to England o “Moral Treatment” methods caught on throughout Europe and the US o In US, Benjamin Rush, Dorothea Dix, and Clifford Beers made significant  contributions to the moral movement The Decline of Moral Treatment (20  Century)  Due to severe money shortages and resultant staffing shortages o Recovery rates declined o Severe overcrowding of facilities  Moral treatment was expected to cure all patients (not true!)  A new wave of prejudice against people with mental disorders  Long­term hospitalization became the rule once again th 20  Century Perspectives: Somatogenic vs Psychogenic Etiology  Somatogenic (Biological) Perspective: The View that abnormal psychological  functioning has physical causes o This view gained popularity and actually became important due to the work of  Emil Kraeplin (1856­1926) and others o Noted repetitive patterns in symptoms and symptom clusters called syndromes o All disorders caused by organic causes: metabolic disturbance; endocrine  dysfunction, brain disease or heredity o First system for classifying mental illness based on causation o Was used by APA in the first DSM  Somatogenic Perspectives (20  Century) o Richard Von Kraft­Ebing’s (and others) work with syphilis  Syphilis caused physical and mental symptoms in later stages (general  paresis, dementia, delusions)  Fitz Schaudinn discovered the microorganism responsible for syphilis  (Treponema Pallida)  Researchers speculated that there would be similar organic causes found  for all mental disorders  Tx Measures: Tooth extraction, tonsillectomy, hydrotherapy, lobotomy  Biological causes linked to genetics: Eugenic sterilization (45,000 in U.S.  between 1907­1945)  Psychogenic Perspectives (20  Century) o Psychogenic: The view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are  psychological o What about emotional disorders not associated with any organic disease in the  patient?  Hysterical disorders: blindness, paralysis, deafness, loss of body feeling  with no discernable physical cause o Fredrick Anton Mesmer (1734­1815, Paris)  Developed a technique called “mesmerism” which used trance and  suggestion to cure hysterical disorders  Theatrics and unconventional methods resulted in discrediting him and his approaches  Later re­investigated by physicians in Nancy, France  The technique was refined and renamed: hypnotism o Significance of Hypnotism: Support for psychogenic perspectives  If trance and suggestion was able to cure hysterical ailments, could  hysterical ailments be induced in otherwise healthy individuals?  Josef Breuer (1842­1925): Patients allowed to speak about previously  traumatic events while under trance often woke up without symptoms  Collaborations with another Viennese physician, Sigmund Freud (1856­ 1939) Current Trends: Incidence and Prevalence of Mental Disorders  Prevalence: The percentage of people in a population who suffer from a disorder at a  given point in time o Ex. The prevalence of schizophrenia is approx. 1% of the US population at any  given time  Incidence: The onset of a given disorder (number of the new causes) over a defined  period of time o May provide important data about high risk groups; what gender, age, cultural or  geographic areas are at risk  In any given year:  30 % of adults and 19% of children or teens in the US suffer from  a diagnosable mental disorder and need treatment  18 of every 100 adults have a significant anxiety disorder  10 suffer from profound depression  5 have a personality disorder  1 has schizophrenia  1 experiences brain deterioration of Alzheimer’s type  11 abuse alcohol or other drugs  Gender Differences:  Alcohol abuse/dependence occurs in 24%of men, but only 4% of  women  Drug abuse is more likely in men  Depression and anxiety is more likely in women   Age Differences:  Alcoholism and depression are most prominent in the 25­45 year  old range  Drug dependence is more common in 18­24 year olds  Phobias occur equally in all age groups  How do we view mental disorders?  NMHA, 1999 Survey: o 43% “People bring on mental disorders themselves” o 35% “Mental disorders are caused by sinful behavior o 19% Mental disorders result from a lack of will power or  self­discipline”  Recent Trends in Treatment  1950sPsychotropic medications discovered o Antipsychotics o Antidepressants o Antianxiety (anxiolytics)  Results so dramatic that hundreds of thousands of patients began to be released from mental health institutions  Outpatient care has now become the primary mode of treatment  Community based treatment programs o Problems with community based programs:  Lack of financial support, shortage of programs  Thousands of individuals with severe disturbances  fail to make lasting recoveries  At least 100,000 individuals with severe  disturbances are homeless on any given day  Another 135,000 or more are inmates in jails and  prisons (Kilaspy, 2004)  Other current trends: o Managed health care o Prevention programs and positive psychology o Multicultural psychology o Who provides treatment (MD, PhD, MA)  Prescribing rights o The total economic cost of psychological disorders in the  US:  Includes substance abuse  Direct treatments cost, lost wages, etc.  Exceeds $400 billion each year (NIDA, 2000)


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