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NFSC 345, Week 2

by: Ary Spilkin

NFSC 345, Week 2 NFSC 345

Ary Spilkin
CSU Chico
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About this Document

Evidence Based Research
Supplements and Functional Foods
Dr. Giovanni
Class Notes
nutrition, research, evidence-based




Popular in Supplements and Functional Foods

Popular in Nutrition

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ary Spilkin on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFSC 345 at California State University Chico taught by Dr. Giovanni in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Supplements and Functional Foods in Nutrition at California State University Chico.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
8/29/16 NFSC 345 Lecture 2 Interpreting & Applying Evidence Based Research (EBR) Finding Evidence Based Research Use of search engines and review websites like -Library Search Guide for 345: Where does the public get information? Media-TV Internet Friends and family Health care professionals Why aren’t these reliable sources? Why do people believe them? How can we provide reliable information? Interpreting Science Science is reported and interpreted in many ways and depends upon the experimenter, the reporter and the listener Our job as professionals is to experiment, report and interpret objectively: 1. Of or having to do with a material object  EVIDENCE 2. Having actual existence or reality. 3. Uninfluenced by emotions or personal prejudices: an objective critic. Based on observable phenomena; presented factually: an objective appraisal. 4. Medicine Indicating a symptom or condition perceived as a sign of disease by someone other than the person affected. The Scientific Method What is it Why is it important How to use it -Goal is to understand and apply EBR (evidence based research) Scientific Method: What “Systematic process of empirical investigation” Explore a phenomena or answer a question with minimal bias or influence Statistical analysis to consider variability Why is the Scientific Method important? • Applicable to any type of inquiry • Presents information in a logical manner • Objective • Replicable (what is the result if someone else does the same experiment) • As F&N professionals, our job is to evaluate and interpret information about food and nutrition • Goal is to provide evidence-based, objective guidance to people Steps in the Scientific Method 1. Observation 2. Ask questions 3. Form hypothesis: testable explanation 4. Conduct the experiment 5. Analyze results 6. Accept or reject hypothesis (Conclusion) 7. Generate new questions Parts of a Research Article (Similarly to the Scientific Method) 1. Abstract Observation, ask question 2. Introduction (purpose/ hypothesis, literature review) Form hypothesis: educated guess 3. Methodology Perform the experiment 4. Results Analyze results 5. Conclusions and Further Research Accept or reject hypothesis 6. References Generate new questions How to Read a Scientific Article Critically • Know WHY you are reading the paper – What am I looking for? What do I need to know? • Read the title, then the abstract If it appears to answer your questions, keep on: • Read the introduction and conclusion • Read the discussion • Look at the charts/tables/graphs • Read the methods and results – Do the results support the discussion and conclusions? – Were the correct methods used? What variables were controlled? Dealt with confounding factors? • Who are the authors and where do they work? – Who paid for the research? Reporting Science • Source of the information is critical • Most reliable sources are peer-reviewed publications • Peer-review: Process by which the research is reviewed prior to publication • Non-peer reviewed journals rely on the judgment of the editors The Goal of a Research Experiment • Answer the question(s) posed – Accept or reject the null hypothesis – Null hypothesis = no effect or no difference • How to accept or reject the null hypothesis? Conduct an experiment to determine if the effect of the treatment has more effect on the outcome than what would be expected due to chance. • Ex: Taking calcium supplements builds strong bones. Key Considerations in a Research Experiment • Hypothesis: Change only a limited number of independent variables in each experiment – Changing many independent variables can lead to confusing results. • Variables: – Independent (treatment) – Dependent (outcome) – Control – Confounding Before the Experiment: Determine the variables 1. Independent: what is varied/changes for the experiment, e.g., frequency of eating vegetables – Variables of interest to the experiment – Independent impact the dependent variables – The “treatments” controlled by the researcher 2. Dependent: outcome variables, e.g., blood pressure o What will change as a result of the treatment o The results of an experiment DATA 3. Control variables: Variables held constant so that these factors can be considered in the data analysis and do not affect the statistical results, e.g., total caloric intake, exercise 4. Confounding factors: results in data variability, e.g., stress, genetics Confounding Variable (or factor) Associated with the independent and/or dependent variables and affects the outcome of the experiment -For example if you are taking herbs, the way in which it was grown like the soil or climate can influence the product Conclusions Should be: • Logical, based upon the data – Role of “peer review” • Confounding factors noted • Acknowledge any bias – Disclosure at end of paper. • Conclusions usually lead to more questions • What “future research” is needed? Types of Studies • Primary: Research is done by the reporting research team • Secondary: Research is done using data collected by others – Example: Natl Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): • (Systematic) Reviews: Ex. Readings 9, 11 • Meta-analysis: Ex. Reading 8 Types of Research Studies • Primary: Conducts experiment, analyzes results – Basic: Fundamental research, e.g., splicing DNA, chemical analyses (in vitro, ex vivo) – Applied: Approach a current problem, human/clinical • Secondary: Uses results from another experiment or source, e.g., different statistical analysis on a data set, using NHANES data • Review (Systematic): Publication that reviews a many papers on a specific topic. – May be a “Systematic Review” or a “Mini-Review” • Meta-analysis: A type of review that answers questions by: – combing numeric results from different studies into one “mega” data set then, – Statistically analyzes this data set to reach a conclusion


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