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Social Psychology Chapter 2 Notes

by: Annah Shrader

Social Psychology Chapter 2 Notes PSY 3310

Annah Shrader
GPA 3.705

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About this Document

These notes are on the Scientific Method in chapter two of the textbook. There are three chapters that will be on the next test.
Social Psychology
David Frank Ross (P)
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annah Shrader on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3310 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by David Frank Ross (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.

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Date Created: 09/01/16
Social Psychology Notes Week two Key Points from Chapter 2 Text Book **This chapter also hit on common sense and feelings being an unreliable source for information. It reiterated the importance of the scientific method to discover knowledge. The chapter was a review of the scientific method in research. On the Scientific Method How Common Sense Fails: People use their past experiences to judge fact and create assumptions, and often times this is an inaccurate thing to rely upon.  Hindsight Bias: Knowing something to be fact after you found out about it being fact. This is common when people claim they knew something was going to happen after it already happened.  False Consensus Effect: This is when you overestimate the number of people who agree with your personal beliefs. Thinking everyone acts this way or thinks this way just because you do.  Examples of commonly held beliefs that are wrong: o Women fall in love faster than men do was proven incorrect. o Thought suppression, or trying to not think about something, makes you think about it even more, it turns out. How Researchers find the Truth 1. It all begins with a research question typically drawn from an existing theory. You have to know what you are going to test before you can begin proving it wrong. A theory in this course means to understand a concept enough so that you can attempt to explain or predict the behavior. 2. After you are sufficiently curious about something and can put it into a question, look up the research that has already been done on the topic. We live in an age of errored websites, so it is always better to use peer reviewed articles, or articles that have been read and approved by other experts. 3. Come up with a hypothesis, or testable prediction that includes variables that can be supported or proven incorrect. When writing the hypothesis the researchers have to make sure that they are using operational definitions of the variables being tested, which basically means that the prediction can be measured and is not vague. Researchers have to make sure that their methods of measurement measure what they intend to measure (validity) and that the results are consistent (reliability). 4. Create a sample of people or organisms to be tested. It is too complicated to test the entire population most of the time, so choose a small group that is randomly assigned (meaning that each person had an equal chance of being selected) and represents the population being tested. 5. Test the hypothesis and analyze the results. 6. After the study is completed and the hypothesis is either supported or rejected, the researcher then goes into the process of replication, or repeating the study over and over until it becomes confirmed and as close to scientific truth as possible. Replication can also be done for different variables to shine new light on the subject. Types of Research:  Descriptive Research: This research has to do with describing the population’s current status and attempts to answer questions of why. o Observation: This is when the experimenter uses their own senses and vision to conduct research. It can be done in a controlled setting where all variables are accounted for, or it can occur in the natural environment of the subject where the researcher simply watches what happens aka naturalistic observation. o Surveys and self-report methods o Archival Studies: This involves looking over past issues of magazines or web pages. o Correlations: Observing whether there is a relationship between two variables. Correlation does not mean causation and there are less controls in this type of research.  Third Variables: These are explanations unaccounted for in the research. Even though there might be a relationship between two things, a third variable could be the explanation.  Experimental Research: This research is conducted in attempt to control all variables so that there is no question at the end whether the results are valid and reliable. It answers cause and effect unlike correlational research. o External validity refers to the results of the experiment relating to the general population which is easier for field work to conduct. Internal validity has to do with the experiment itself accounting for confounding variables (changes that are not due to the independent variable) and control, which is easier for lab work to conduct. o Independent variable is the variable that the experimenter changes, and has control over. o Dependent variable is that which the experimenter cannot control, and is what is being measured. o Experimental Group is the group that receives the change, or independent variable. o Control Group is left alone for reasons of comparison. Problems and solutions in experimental research:  Confounding variables  Participant Bias: When the participant makes assumptions about the experiment and alters behavior accordingly.  Placebo Effect (sugar pill)  Single Blind Study: Participants do not know which variable they get.  Double Blind Study: Participants and researcher is unaware of who gets what. This is the best method to use. Ethics:  Deception: Giving false information intentionally. Like in Milgram’s experiment when he did not tell the participant that everyone was in on the experiment but the participant himself. The use of deception in an experiment must be completely justified to get approval by the IRB.  Debriefing: If deception is used it is especially relevant to let the participant know afterwards about the deception. But it is also important to debrief participants to let them know more information about what is being tested in the experiment specifically. This is conducted afterwards in order to not ruin the experiment by participant bias.  Participants cannot be harmed mentally or physically and they have to be given informed consent to be a part of the experiment. Informed consent is just the awareness of the risks and information about the study to see if they would like to participate.  Institutional Review Boards (IRB): This is the group that gives the okay for a researcher to conduct an experiment. The experiment has to be planned out completely, and the IRB searches for any ethical violations in the research, and makes sure that any risks to the participant are minimal and justified. Videos covered in class: Can be found on Blackboard under the Videos tab.  Harry met Sally  Steve Harvey  KKK in South Georgia  Power of the Situation: This video covered a lot of topics brought up last class as well as some important experiments brought up in the book. The video was 25 minutes long and covered the prison guards experiment, the electric shock experiment, brought up Hitler and conformity, among others.


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