Chapter 1, 2, and Part 1 of Chapter 3
Chapter 1, 2, and Part 1 of Chapter 3 SOC 110
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Wolfe on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 110 at University of North Dakota taught by Ashley Leschyshyn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Sociology 8/30/16 The Sociological Imagination What is sociology? Study of the social behavior and human groups. o Macro sociology – large scale patterns of social behavior Social institutions Ex: education, mass media, family, religion, politics, government, etc. o Micro sociology – small scale patterns of social behavior Face to face social interactions Isn’t sociology common sense? True or false? o More complicated than you would think o The death penalty reduces crime. False o Opposites attract. False o Women talk more than men. False they talk about the same amount in a day o Divorce rates are higher today than ever before. False the highest was 1976 o Parents spend less time with their children today than previous generations. False because of the child laws in place today o Strip club parking lots are more dangerous than fast foods lots. False because strip clubs have security o Most child kidnappings are committed by strangers. False most are family members The sociological imagination Ability to see the impact of social forces on our private lives o Critical thinking o Private troubles (micro) Problems within immediate relationships o Public issues (macro) Problems due to one’s social position Social problems Major theoretical perspectives Functionalist perspective (extremely conservative) o Macro o Social order o Stability o Social institutions = interdependent – efficiency o Criticisms Conservative Can’t explain social change Conflict perspective (100% opposite of functionalist perspective) o Macro o Social change and inequalities o Coercion and power produce social order o Capitalism = Competition = Conflict o Criticism Doesn’t explain stability in society Highly politically motivated Interactionist perspective o Micro o Social construction o Small scale interaction o Criticism Only focuses on small scale not on macro level Ignores “bigger picture” Changing intellectual climate o 18 century Age of Reason/the Enlightenment Explanation of social events Theological -> scientific Changing social climate o Industrialization Manufacturing based economy o Rapid urbanization Growth in large cities o Mass immigration Fear of crime that would ensue on society Fear of disease Fear of pollution Overcrowding o Researchers sought answers to social problems Chapter 2 Father of Sociology o August Comte (1798-1857) Could society be improved? Positivism – applying the scientific method to sociological research/sociological inquiry Predicting human behavior o A hypothesis How 2 or more variables are related o Independent variable – cause of the change o Dependent variable – the effect Identify the IV and DV variables o The availability of affordable housing will lower the homeless rate. IV: availability of affordable housing DV: lower the homeless rate o Increases in police patrol will create safer neighborhoods. IV: police patrol DV: Safer neighborhoods Culture (Society) Society is a grouping of individuals. What is culture? o Shared language, knowledge, and material objects. o The product of society, there can be multiple cultures in one society. Learned Transmitted Adaptive (fluid) Culture o Material culture – tangible objects o Nonmaterial culture – nontangible objects Elements of nonmaterial culture o Forms of communication: Signs (symbols) Gestures: body communication Nonverbal communication – 90% of communication is nonverbal Language: shared symbols to communicate Socially constructed Recently added words o Awesome sauce, fur baby, neck beard, adorbs Values Desirable/undesirable Good/bad Fluid (change) – things we value today we might not value in the future Norms – rules of conduct Fall on a continuum – some can be loosely enforced and some are formally enforced (i.e. laws) Informal norms o Implicit/unspoken Folkways: not strictly enforced. Formal norms o Moral/ethical behavior Mores: strict norms; foundation of law
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