ANSC 1000 Lab 2
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Date Created: 09/01/16
ANSC 1000Lab 2 Breeds ofCattle What is a breed? Breed – A group oforganismshavingcommon ancestorsandcertain distinguishablecharacteristics. Breeds sharesimilartraitssuchas size, shape,color, andbehavior. Whenanimalsofthesame breed are bedtogether, theoffspringwill showthesetraits.Theywill look,act,andperform like theirparents. Sire Traits vs. DamTraits Dam traits– traitsthatcome from the maternalfigure.Thesetraitsare often relatedto raisinghealthyoffspring.Ex.Fertility,milkproduction,calving ease, care. Sire traits– traitsthatcome from the paternalfigure.Thesetraitsare relatedto growth,size,andmuscling.Ex.Rate ofgain,feed efficiency, ribeye area. Bothsets oftraitsrelateto the breedas a whole.Theyare notto be confusedwith thegender ofthe individual. Beef CattleTerminology Group Herd Adjective Bovine Genus and species Bos taurus or Bos indicus Act of Parturition Calving General Term for Young Calf Young Male Bull Young Female Heifer Mature Male Bull Mature Female Cow Castrated Male Steer Types ofCattle Bos taurus – Developedtoperform in temperateclimates.Theyare primarilyfrom GreatBritainand WesternEurope.Theyare selected mostlyfor beefor milkproduction. Bos indicus – Developedtoperform in hot,tropicalclimates.Theyare primarilyfrom IndiaandSouthAsia.Theyare primarilyusedfor draft power andbeef. Bos taurus The Britishbreedswere the first type broughtintotheUnitedStates. Exoticor Continentalbreedscanbe referred to eitherway. Exoticis notfrom Great BritainwhileContinentalisfromthe European continent. Thisincludesdairy-typecattle. British Breeds These BritishbreedsdevelopedinGreatBritain.Theytendto havea smallerframe andare a lighter weight breedofcattle.Theiraverage weight can be anywherefrom 1,000 – 1,500 lbs. Thisbreed alsomaturesat a youngerage which allowsthemto be marketedearlier. Theyhavea highfertilityrate andaneasycalvingprocess. Theyalsohavea goodproductivelife. These breedshaveless musclingthantheExotics. In crossbreedingprograms,theyare usedas dam or maternalbreeds. Angus The AngusoriginatedinScotland.Theyare usuallyblackin color becauseblackis the dominantgene.Thered coats are recessive. These cows are naturallypolled,meaningtheyhavenohorns.A matureAngus cowcan weigh anywherefrom 1,150 – 1,250 lbs. 2 Thisparticularbreedis themost popularbeefbreed.You willoften hear peoplerefer tothem as “Black Angus.” Theyhavedesirablecharacteristicssuchas a high carcass quality,they addmarblequickly,theyhavea high fertilityrate,good milk production,andaneasycalvingprocess.Theyare alsovery dark pigmentedaroundtheireyeswhich helpsto preventcancer eye.The Angusis a highlydesirablebreedincrossbreedingprograms. Some undesirablecharacteristicsincludeaslightlynervousor high strungdemeanor.Theyare alsonotoverlycold tolerant.However, neitheroneofthese traitsare a seriousproblem.Thisbreedhas difficultywithbullsin breedingprograms.Theirdarkcoats can be problematicinhot,sunnyclimates. Male Angus 3 Female Angus Red Angus The Red AngusoriginatedintheUnitedStates.Theyhavethe same characteristicsas theAngus. Theyare red incolor due toa recessive gene. Red x Red = Red Red x Black= Black 4 Male Red Angus Female Red Angus 5 Hereford The Hereford originatedinEngland.Theyhavea red bodywith white extremitiessuchas the face, chest,pasterns,switch,andcrest. Theywere originallyhorned.However,overtime, polledanimalswere selectedfor andnowthereare bothpolledandhornedHerefords. A maturecow weighs around1,150 lbs. A Hereford’s desirablecharacteristicsaretheydowell on openranges, theyare hardyin coldweather, andtheyhavea moderatesize.Bullstend to haveexcellentlibido.Thisbreedis alsoknownfor a high fertilityrate with limitedfeed.Theyalsogenerallyhavea good disposition. Some undesirablecharacteristicsofthisbreed is lowmilkproduction, udderstructureproblems(large teats),do notmarblewell,layon wastefulexternalfat,and havelight coloringaroundtheeyes which increasestheirchances ofcancer eye. Male Hereford (Horned) 6 Female Hereford (Horned) Polled Hereford Thisbreed ofHerefords originatedintheUnitedStates.Theycarrythe same genetictraitsas Herefords,excepttheyare bred to be polled (havenohorns). Theyhavea larger frame thanstandardHerefordsbutcontainless muscling.Theyalsotend tohavea more pendulous(looselyhanging) sheath. 7 Male PolledHereford Female PolledHereford 8 Shorthorn The ShorthornbreedoriginatedinEngland.Theyaretypicallyred, roan,or white incolor. Theycan eitherbe hornedor polled.Iftheyare horned,theirhornsare shortandcurl downward. A matureShorthorncowweighs around 1,050 lbs. Theyare generally usedas a “utility”type animal. The Shorthornbreedwasthe first popularbreedinUnitedStatesbut it hasgraduallybeendeclining. A few desirablecharacteristicsofShorthornsareeasycalving,a good disposition,amoderatesize,anda good cross for otherbreeds. Some undesirablecharacteristicsarea patchy finish(patchyfat deposition),theyhavelight muscling,andpoorcarcass quality. Male Shorthorn (Polled) (roan color) 9 Female Shorthorn (Polled) (roan color) Commercial CrossbredCattle Ex.Angusx Hereford = resultsin a calfwith a blackbody(from Angus) anda white face (from Hereford). Thisis a terminalcross for the market. Thiscow is oftencalled “Blackbaldy”or “Brockle face.” 10 Exotic/ContinentalBreeds These breedswere developedinContinentalEurope. Theytendto havea larger frame anda heavierweight.Theycan weight anywherefrom 1,200 – 1,400 lbs. Theymaturelaterand asa resultofthis,it takeslonger for them to reach the market standards. Theyhaveheavymusclinganda highcarcass yield. These breedsalsohavelowfertility,higher calvingproblems,andless marbling. Theyare typicallyusedas thesire or paternalbreedincross breeding. Charolais The Charolaisareabreed thatoriginallycamefrom France. These cows tendto be creamy whitein color andcan be hornedor polled.Amature cowweighs around1,550lbs. Thiswas one ofthe first exoticbreedsintroducedintheUnitedStates. Charolaisaredesirablefortheirheavymuscling,rapidgrowth rate, anddesirableyieldgrade. Some downfallsthatcome withthis breedare a lowfertilityrate, low milkproduction,andcalvingdifficulties.Overthe years,selective breedinghashelpedto reduce thecalvingissue. 11 Male Charolais(Polled) Female Charolais(Polled) 12 Simmental Thisbreed ofcattleoriginatedinSwitzerland.Theycan be yellow,red, or white witha white face andwhitestockings. Theyare a predominantlyhornedbreed.Therearesome thatcan be polled.Amature cowcan weigh around1,500lbs. Thisbreed can be usedfor draft,milk,or meat production. Simmentalshavenice characteristicslike a highmilkproduction(20 lbsper day),a rapidgrowth rate, andtheyworkwell as a sire or dam breed. Undesirablecharacteristicsofthe Simmentalsarecalvingdifficultydue to heavybirthweight andnutritionrelatedfertilityissues.Theyneed to be managedmore like a dairybreedinsteadofa beefbreed. Male Simmental (Polled) 13 Female Simmental (Polled) Limousin The LimousinsoriginatedinFrance.Theyare typicallya goldenred toa lightyellowcolor.Theycan eitherbe hornedorpolled. A maturecow can weigh closeto 1,300 lbs. The Limousinisthe mostpopularexoticbreedin theUnitedStates. Some favorablecharacteristicsofLimousinsarethe highestcarcass yields,easycalving,andgoodas a sire or dam breed. Theirsmallercow size is alsodesiredincrossbreeding. Some poorcharacteristicsofLimousinsare a lowaverage dailygain (ADG),a smallscrotal circumference, andlowmilkproduction.The lowADG is nothelpedbycrossbreedingthatoccurs. A smallscrotal circumference contributestolowsperm production. 14 Male Limousin (Polled) Female Limousin (Polled) 15 Gelbvieh (Gelp-fee) Thisbreed originallycamefrom AustriaandWest Germany.Theyare typicallyyellowto goldenred butcan alsobe black.Theycan be either hornedor polled.AmatureGelbviehcowcan weigh 1,300 lbs. Positivecharacteristicsofthisbreed are rapidgrowth,good carcass characteristics,anda moderatesize thatworks well as a damfor crossbreeding.Theyhavegood maternaltraitssuchas highfertility rates,earlymaturing,andhigh milkproduction.Theirgenes also complimentotherbreedswell when theyare beingcrossbred. Downfallsin thebreed are calvingdifficultydue toheavybirthweight anda thickfront end.Peoplethinkthata heavydewlapandneck are unattractive. Male Gelbvieh (Polled) 16 Female Gelbvieh (Polled) Bos indicus Bos indicusbreedsare madeup ofBrahmanandBrahman crossbreeds.Some positivethingsaboutthesebreedsare theirheat andparasitetolerances.Theyhave highlydevelopedsweatglands which allowsthem tosweat more freely.CrossingBritishwith Exotic breedsproduceshigh heterosis(superiorqualities)inthesebreeds. Undesiredcharacteristicsarea nervousdisposition,toughmeat(dark cutters,more connectivetissue),anda penduloussheath.Theyare alsonotadaptabletocoldclimates. Brahman The BrahmanbreedoriginatedinIndiaandSoutheastAsia. 17 Theyare a white togray color andusuallyhorned.Theyhavedroopy ears,looseskin,and a deepsheath. There are severalbreed variantswithintheBrahmanbreed. Some favorablecharacteristicsincludeeasycalving,gooddam or maternalbreed,highdegree ofheretosiswhencrossed withBritish breeds,andtheyhavethehighestbutterfatcontentofanybeefbreed. Some ofthe downfallstothisbreed is lowfertilitywhich can be increasedwith crossbreeding,lowgrowth rates,andlightmuscling. Male Brahman (Polled) 18 Female Brahman (Polled) Santa Gertrudis The SantaGertrudisfirstdevelopedontheKing Ranchin Texas.This was the first beefbreeddevelopedinthe UnitedStates. Theyare mostlya red color andcan be hornedor polled. Amature cow can weigh up to 1,450 lbs. Thisbreed is madeup of5/8Shorthornand3/8Brahman.Theycan be referred to as “Gerts.” Theyare knownfor havinga rapidgrowthrate, good milkproduction, andwill workwell as a sire or dam breed. A coupleofsetbacks to thisbreedis lowfertilityandlackof muscle relativeto theirlarge frame. 19 Male Santa Gertrudis (Horned) Female Santa Gertrudis (Polled) 20 Brangus The Brangusis a breedthatoriginatedinthe UnitedStates. Theyare generallyblackincolor andare polled.A maturecow can weigh around1,300 lbs. Theyare madeup of5/8 Angusand3/8 Brahman. GoodcharacteristicsofBranguscattleare good milkproduction,high fertilityrates,andcarcass traitsmore likethe Angusthanthe Brahman. An undesirablecharacteristicisthattheyare primarilya dambreed. Male Brangus (Polled) 21 Female Brangus (Polled) 22 Beef CattleEquipment Identification BrandingIrons Freeze brandingiron– Short handle,smoothsurface;willnot showup on darkskinnedanimal;permanentformofidentification. Hot brandingiron– Longhandle,irongrooves;containsgabsin the metalthatwill close when it isheated Freeze brandingiron (toppicture – 2 shortirons;bottompicture– the letters‘U’ andthesmall ‘A’) Hot brandingiron – (top – longiron;bottom– big‘A’) 23 Ear Tags AllflexEarTag – plasticear tagthatcomes intwo pieces; anAllflex Ear Tagger gun is usedto putthesein the ear;differentcolors dependon the farmers;thisis a temporaryform ofidentification.Theseeartags can get rippedout. Allflex EarTagger Allflex EarTag 24 Metalear tag– sits close tothe edge of theear; thisis a more permanentmethodofidentification.Thesecanalsoget rippedout. Metal EarTag and Metal EarTagger (Ear Tag Pliers) Ear tattoo– A tattoogunwith a piece ofmetalcontainingneedles that inkis appliedtoanditis stampedonthe insideoftheear; thismethod is permanentbutovertime, becomes hardto see. Tattoo Method 25 Paintstick – Used towrite numbersofthe side ofanimals;temporary identification. Paint Stick Restraint Collar– can be usedfor identification,temporary;usedfor restraint Collar 26 Rope/ChainHalter– An adjustablerestraintthatisplacedupunder the chinandbehindtheears;can be usedfor leading Chain(top) Rope(bottom) Nose tongs– Placed onthe septumofthe noseandhookedto desired holdingarea;very effective. Nose Tongs 27 Handling Hot shot– electricrod usedfor handlingormovingananimal;this causes a lotofstress Hot Shot Flags/sortingsticks– Used toseparate,move,or sort animals;low stress;notused for hittingorstrikinganimals Flags/Sorting Sticks Bullwhips–Used to make noiseto motivatetheanimaltomove,not for whipping Bullwhip 28 Castration Elastrator–A device used to stretchouta rubberband,placeit aroundthetestes,andlet the rubberbandgo.Thiscuts off circulation andthe testeswill eventuallyfalloff;thisis a bloodlessmethod Elastrator NewberryCastrationKnife– Used tocute thetestes off;Very messy, requirescleanup,andtestesmust be disposedof Newberry CastrationKnife 29 Emasculation–A device usedto crush thetubesinsidethe testes; bloodless Emasculation Californiaband–A bandthatisplacedaroundthetestes anda metal clip is adjustedtotightenthebandwhilecuttingoff bloodflow; bloodless California Band 30 Dehorning Electricdehorner– Thisdevice is used onsmallhorns;Once it has heatedit,itis placedon the hornto cauterizeit whichstopsthe horn from growing Electric Dehorner Hot dehorner– Heated byfire; usedto burnoffsmallhorns Hot Dehorner 31 Scoop dehorner – A piece of equipment used to dig and cut out small horns Scoop Dehorner Barnesdehorner– A piece of equipmentthatcutsoffthehornat its base;usedfor large horns Barnes Dehorner 32 Health Ballinggun – A device thatdeliversmedication,vitamins,etc.by placingit in theanimal’smouth. Balling Gun Rumenmagnet – A magnetthatis swallowedbythe animaltocollect anymetalthatthe animalmighthavepicked up whilegrazingto avoid anypuncturewoundsinsidethestomach Rumen Magnet 33 Drenchinggun – A device with a hoseon one endthatis placedinto the liquidmedicinewhiletheoppositeendisplacedin theanimal’s mouthto administerthemedicine DrenchingGun ColostrumSupplement–A supplementthatismixedwith warm water andgiven to the animaltoensurethattheyare receivingthe proper nutrients ColostrumSupplement 34 Electrolytesupplement–Anothersupplementadministeredto animalstomake sure theyare gettingthepropernutrients Electrolyte Supplement Trocar – A device used to pierce theside ofthe animaltoallowgas to escape;A last effortfor bloating Trocar 35 CaliforniaMastitisTest– A test for a cow’s milkwhere each teaton the udderis milkedintothewell and theindicatorisaddedto check for clumping California Mastitis Test Reproduction CIDR Applicator–A device thatis insertedinthevagina witha shot of progesteronetopreventovulation;Itis to be removedwhenever the individualdesires 36 CIDRApplicator EstrusDetector (Estrotect) – A heatdetector thatis placedon thetail ofthe female andwhenevershe is mounted,thesilverwillbe scratched offto revealthe brightcolor beneath;thishelpsto determineandkeep trackofthe animalsthatarereadyor thathave possiblybeenfertilized Estrus Detector (Estrotect) 37 Scrotal tape– A tape thatis usedto measurethe circumference ofthe scrotum Scrotal Tape ObstetricalChainandHandle– Used inthe scenariothata cow is havingtroublecalving;It is wrappedaroundthefrontfeet ofthe calf to helppullthecalf out;can possiblybreakthe legs ofthe calf Obstetrical Chainand Handle 38 Weight Tape– A tape usedto measurethe ribcage or order to get an estimateofhowmuch the animalweighs Weight Tape 39
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