Thursday 09/01/16 Lecture Notes
Thursday 09/01/16 Lecture Notes PSYC 1301
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Izabella Brock on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Zarate in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at El Paso.
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PSYC 1301 Sept 1,20166 Lecture Notes Class Info: Take the online quizzes No quiz this weekend Class Notes: Studying Memory • Memory refers to the persistence of learning over time, through the storage and retrieval of information and skills o Learning new skills takes cognitive function o Three behaviors show that memory is functioning § Recall is analogous to “fill-in-the-blank” you retrieve information previously learned and unconsciously stored § Recognition – is a form of “multiple choice” you identify which stimuli match your stored information § Relearning – is a measure of how much less work it takes you to learn information you had studied before, even if you don’t recall having seen the information before • Relearning Time as a Measure of Retention o In the late 1800s, Hermann Ebbinghaus studied another measure of memory functioning: how much time does it take to relearn and regain mastery of material? o He studied the memorization of nonsense syllables (THB YOX KVU EHM) so that depth of processing or prelearning would not be a factor o The more times he rehearsed out loud on day 1, the less time he needed to relearn/memorize the same letters on day 2 • Memory Game o Memory Illusion – a false but convincing memory o Memory is reconstructive – we extract the gist to make things easier to remember, but this also contributes to memory errors o It helps us generally, as specific details are rarely needed, but it does cause errors • Stage Model: PSYC 1301 Seept1,,20166 Lecture Notes • Sensory Memory: Fleeting Impression of the World o Very briefly stores sensory impressions so that they overlap slightly with one another o Used to perceive the world as continuous, rather than as a series of disconnected visual images or disjointed sounds • Types of Sensory Memory o Visual sensory memory – is sometimes referred to as iconic memory because it is the brief memory of an image, or icon § Duration; approximately ¼ to ½ a second o Auditory sensory memory is sometimes referred to as echoic memory, meaning a brief memory that is like an echo § Lasts up to three or four seconds • Sperling’s Experiment Demonstrating the Duration of Sensory Memory • Sensory Information o Short lived (such as stepping on a rock) o Limitless o Must be attended to quickly • Short-Term Working Memory: The Work of Consciousness o STM provides temporary storage for information transferred from sensory and long-term memory o Duration: about 20 seconds § Can be retained longer through maintenance rehearsal § Mental or verbal repetition of information § Information loss may be due to decay or interference from new or competing information o Capacity § Described by George Miller as “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two” § Can be increased by chunking; use maintenance rehearsal to encode § Current research suggests that the true “magical number” is four plus or minus one when chunking not an option • Working Memory: Functions o The Short-term memory is “working” in many ways § It holds information not just to rehearse it, but to process it (such as hearing a word problem in math and doing it in your head). PSYC 1301 Seept1,,20166 Lecture Notes o Short-term memory integrates information from long-term memory with new information coming in from sensory memory • Encoding Memory: Capacity of Short-Term and Working Memory o If some information is selected from sensory memory to be sent to short- term memory, how much information can we hold there? o George Miller proposed that we can hold 7 +/- 2 information bits (for example, a string of 5 to 9 letters) o More recent research suggests that the average person, free from distraction can hold about: § 7 digits, 6 letters, or 5 words o Working Memory, which uses rehearsal, focus, analysis, linking, and other processing, has greater capacity than short-term memory. The capacity of working memory varies; some people have better concentration • Duration o Peterson and Peterson measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal § The duration of the working memory is about 20 seconds • Capacity Theories o Tasks take mental effort o We have limited mental effort to allocate to all demands on our attention § Conscious control of allocation § Some tasks require more attention than others § It helps that some tasks become automated • Consciousness 1. Since we cannot focus on all the sensory information received, we select information that is important to us and actively process it into our working memory 2. Consciousness, short-term memory, working memory. For us, the same 3. Limited in capacity. The only memory store limited in capacity. • Long-Term Memory o Any information stored longer than the 20-second duration of short-term memory o Unlimited amount of information can be stored in long-term memory § LTM has different memory systems § Long-term memories can last a lifetime § Amount of information that can be held is limitless o Three Major categories § Procedural memory – refers to the long-term memory of how to preform different skills, operations, and actions: sometimes known as “Muscle memory” • Such as typing – in order to remember where the letters on a keyboard are we use our hands § Episodic memory refers to long-term memory of specific events or episodes, including the time and place PSYC 1301 Seept1,,2016 Lecture Notes • Related: autobiographical memory; personal life history § Semantic memory is general knowledge of facts, names, definitions, concepts • We usually do not remember where we learned these • Semantic Network Model o Mental links form between concepts § Common properties provide bases for mental link § Shorter path between two concepts = stronger association in memory o Concept is activated in semantic network, spread in any number of directions, activating other associations in network • Retrieval Cues o Memories are held in storage by a web of association. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory PSYC 1301 Sept 1,20116 Lecture Notes • Retrieval is Affected by Activating our Associations o Priming triggers a thread of associations that bring us to a concept, just as a spider feels movement in a web and follows it to find the bug o Our minds, work by having one idea trigger another; this maintains a flow of thought • The power of Priming o Priming has been called “invisible memory” because it affects us unconsciously o In the case of tree “bark” vs. dog “bark” the path we follow in our thoughts can be channeled by priming o We may have biases and associations stored in memory that also influence our choices § Study: people primed with money-related words were less likely to then help another person • Dual-Track Processing: Explicit and Implicit Memories o So far, we have been talking about explicit/”declarative” memories. These are facts and experiences that we can consciously know and recall § Our minds acquire this information through effortful processing. Explicit memories are formed through studying, rehearsing, thinking, processing, and then storing information in long-term memory o Some memories are formed without going through all the Atkinson- Shiffrin stages. These are implicit memories, the ones we are not fully aware of and thus don’t “declare”/talk about § These memories are typically formed through automatic processing. Implicit memories are formed without our awareness that we are building a memory, and without rehearsal or other processing in working memory • Implicit Memory o HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). o HM learned the Tower of Hanoi (game) after his surgery. Each time he plays it, he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game. • Big Issues in Attention o We are bombarded by more information that we can attend to § Selective attention § Divided attention § Automaticity o Some tasks can be performed with little, if any, attention • Automatic Processing o Some experiences are processed automatically into implicit memory, without any effortful/working memory processing: § Procedural memory – such as knowing how to ride a bike, and well-practiced knowledge such as word meanings PSYC 1301 Seept 1,20016 Lecture Notes § Conditioned associations, such as a smell that triggers thought of a favorite place § Information about space, such as being able to picture where things are after walking through a room § Information about time, such as retracting a sequence of events if you lost something § Information about frequency, such as thinking, “I just noticed that this is the third texting driver I’ve passed today.” o Automatic vs. Controlled § Automatic • Fast and efficient • Unavailable consciousness • Unavoidable • Unintentional § Controlled • Slow and less efficient • Available to consciousness • Controllable • Intentional • Encoding: Getting Information In o How we encode § Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed § However, new or unusual information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort • Encoding Long-Term Memories o Maintenance rehearsal is not effective; o Elaborative rehearsal is more effective § Encodes information into a form that can be retrieved later § Focuses on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer it to long-term memory § Relates the information to other information you already know • Encoding: Effortful Processing Strategies o If we have short-term recall of only 7 letters, but can remember 5 words, doesn’t that mean we could remember more than 7 letters if we could group them into words? § This is an example of an effortful processing strategy, a way to encode information into memory to keep it from decaying and make it easier to retrieve § Effortful processing is also known as studying o Examples: § Chunking, mnemonics, maps, hierarchies/categories, rehearsal, deep processing, semantic processing, and making information personally meaningful