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Anatomy Week 1, Chapters 1 & 3

by: Leeanne Anderson

Anatomy Week 1, Chapters 1 & 3 Biol 211

Marketplace > Victor Valley College > Science > Biol 211 > Anatomy Week 1 Chapters 1 3
Leeanne Anderson


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About this Document

These notes cover what is to be on the upcoming exam, in the class notes.
Human Anatomy
Archie Meyer
Class Notes
anatomy, Histology, orientation
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leeanne Anderson on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 211 at Victor Valley College taught by Archie Meyer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Science at Victor Valley College.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
Chapter 1 Anatomy: the study of structure Physiology: the study of function Methods of Study: Inspection, Palpation, Auscultation, Percussion, and Dissection Organ Placements: Situs Solitus: normal organ position Situs Inversus: Reversed organ position Situs Perversus: atypical organ position Levels of structural organization: Chemical (atoms and molecules) → Cellular (cells) → Tissue (groups of similar cells) → Organ (types of tissue working together) → Organ System (organs working together) → Organism (all organ systems working together) Homeostasis: maintenance of a stable internal condition; equilibrium Afferent: signal to the Central Nervous System Efferent: signal exiting the Central Nervous System Anatomical Planes: Sagittal: slice down the middle of the body, making two identical halves Median: equal halves Parasagittal: unequal halves Transverse: slice across the body, front to back, making a cross-section Frontal: slice down the body, making a front and a back half Directional Terms: Superior: toward head Inferior: Away from head Ventral: front Dorsal: back Medial: middle Lateral: side Intermediate: between Proximal: closer (to the core) Distal: further (from the core) Superficial: toward the surface Deep: internal Regional Terms: Axial: head, neck, and trunk Appendicular: limbs Cephalic: head Cervical: neck Thoracic: chest Abdominal: stomach Pelvic: hips Pubic: genital Upper Limb: arm and shoulder Manus: hand Body Cavities and Membranes: Lined by the serous membrane, called serosa: Parietal Serosa: lines cavity walls Visceral Serosa: lines organs Pericardium: heart Pleurae: lungs Peritoneum: abdominopelvic cavity Dorsal Cavity: Cranial Cavital: Head, lined by meninges Vertibral Canal: spinal column Ventral Cavity: 1. Thoracic Cavity: Super Mediastinum: esophagus and heart Pleural Cavities: lungs Pericardial Mediastinum: heart 2. Abdominopelvic Cavity: Abdominal: stomach Pelvis: bladder, reproduction Supine: face up Prone: face down Dorsum: top of feet and back of hands Appendicular Region: limbs Upper limb: arm (brachial), forearm (antebrachial), wrist (carpal), hand (manual), fingers (digits) Lower limb: thigh (femoral), leg (crural), ankle (tarsal), food (pedal), toes (digits) Chapter 3 Tissue: groups of cells similar in structure that perform a common or related function. Histology: the study of tissues Epithelial tissue: covers, has an open edge Connective Tissue: connects and supports other tissues Muscle tissue: provides movement Nerve tissue: controls other tissues EPITHELIAL TISSUE Functions to protect, absorb, filter, secrets, excrete, and receive sensory stimuli. Characteristics: polarity, specialized contacts, a continuous sheet of cells, supported by connective tissue, avascular, innervated, able to regenerate (mitosis). Polarity: Apical surface: Upper, exposed; smooth and slick, mostly having microvilla (surface area), cilia (movement, mucous entrapment) Basal surface: lower, attached; noncellular basal lamina, made of glycoprotein (glue) and collagen fibers Tight junctions Desmosomes: gap junctions Supported by connective tissue Reticular Lamina: a tough network or collagen fibers Types: 1. Cell number Simple: one cell layer Stratified: two or more cell layers 2. Cell shape Squamous: flat Cuboidal: cube like, can be rounded Columnar: tall, rectangular 1. Simple squamous epithelium Functions for rapid diffusion Endothelium: lines the interior of lymph and blood vessels Mesothelium: epithelium of serous membranes in the ventral body cavity 2. Simple cuboidal epithelium Functions to secrete and absorb, composes the walls of small ducts and glands 3. Simple columnar epithelium Functions to secrete and absorb, has microvilli in the digestive tract 4. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Functions in Secretion and absorption, has cilia in the trachea 5. Stratified squamous epithelium Regenerates from below, serves to protect 1. Keratinized: found in skin, serves as a waterproof layer of dead cells 2. Nonkeratinized: found in openings such as the mouth. 6. Transitional epithelium Looks stratified, but has wide apical cells with a pill shape, used for stretch in the bladder 7. Glandular epithelia One or more cells that secrete an aqueous solutions Goblet Cells: unicellular gland that excretes mucous in respiratory and digestive tracts Endocrine glands: release hormones into lymph or blood Exocrine glands: use ducts to excrete Merocine glands: use exocytosis Apocrine glands: mammary and axillary merocine glands Holocrine glands: fill with fluid and burst; found on the scalp and eyelid CONNECTIVE TISSUE 4 types: 1. Connective tissue proper 2. Cartilage 3. Bone 4. Blood Functions to bind, support, protect, insulate, store fuel, and transport Characteristics: has mesenchyme (found in embryos) as an origin, varying degrees of vascularity, and an extracellular matrix Ground substance: matrix material that fills space, has proteins for glue, and has protoglycans which add viscosity. Collagen: stains pink, straight; strong and abundant, highest strength Elastic: stains black, straight; long and thin, weakest strength Reticular: stains black, branched; collagenous and branching, mid strength Cells: -blasts: build (young) -cytes: passive (mature) -claslts: destroy (old) Fibro-: connective proper Chondro-: cartilage Osteo-: bone Connective tissue proper: 1. Loose connective tissue: lots of space, cushioning Areolar: “packing material”, fibroblasts, fight infections Adipose: white fat: storage, adipocyte, richly vascularized; brown fat: heats the bloodstream Reticular: reticular fibers, fibroblasts, found in the spleen and lymph organs Desquamation: exfoliation 2. Dense regular connective tissue: Collagen fibers run parallel to pull, slight stretch, functioning to bind. Has a few fibroblasts; poorly vascularized, found in tendons and ligaments 3. Dense irregular connective tissue: Collagen fiber run in many directions, made for strength and to withstand, multi-directional pulling, found in skin and joint capsules. 4. Elastic connective tissue: Elastic fibers, lines larger arteries and composes vertebral ligaments Cartilage Chondroblasts and chondrocytes, lacking nerve fibers, avascular, mostly water 1. Hyaline cartilage: Collagen fibers, chondrocytes in lacunae; composes the embryonic skeleton, costal cartilage, nose, trachea, larynx, and covers the ends of bones. 2. Elastic cartilage Matrix has elastic fibers, comprises the external ear and epiglottis. 3. Fibrocartilage Many fibers in the same direction, composes intervertebral joints, pubic symphysis, and meniscus. Bone Stores fat, makes red blood cells, stores inorganic calcium salts, richly vascularized. Osteons: structural units of bone Lamella: ring of osteocytes Blood Mostly red blood cells, also has white blood cells and platelets. Fibers are soluble and precipitate during clotting; matrix is called plasma. Muscle Highly vascularized 1. Skeletal muscle: striated, multinucleated, voluntary. 2. Cardiac muscle: striated, branched, intercalated disks, involuntary, found only in the heart. 3. Smooth muscle: non-striated, involuntary, lines hollow organs Nervous tissue Neuroglia (glial) cells: support neurons Neuron: transmits information Covering and lining membranes Cutaneous: skin, dry, outside of the body Mucous (mucosa): lines cavities that open to the outside, top epithelial sheet is called the lamina propria Serous: wet, found in closed body cavities, simple squamous epithelium, serous fluid between layers Tissue repair: Mitosis: regeneration Fibrosis: scar tissue, connective tissue replaces destroyed tissue, some function loss Aging tissues: Thin epithelia, slow repair, atrophy, increased cancer risk Perichondrium: dense irregular connective tissue covering cartilage; not found in fibrocartilage. Spongy bone: makes up the heads of long bones and some parts of smaller bones. Necrosis: premature death of tissue


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