Psyc 301 Week 2 Notes
Psyc 301 Week 2 Notes PSYC 301
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynna Sower on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 301 at Boise State University taught by Scott Armentrout in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Boise State University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Abnormal Psychology Dr. Armentrout PSYC 301 8/29/16 Paradigms and Etiology of Abnormal Behavior Introduction 1) Etiology (a definitive cause) is still unknown (page 45) o There are many theories trying to explain the causes: biology, psychodynamics, cognitive-behavioral o Good quality relationships are key to psychological and physical health. 2) Paradigm: a set of shared assumptions that includes both the substance of a theory and beliefs about how scientists should collect data and test hypotheses (page 45) 3) Biopsychosocial Model: the most widely agreed upon model of causes of abnormal behavior; combines biological, psychological, and social factors Psychodynamic Perspective 4) Based on Sigmund Freud’s teachings 5) Belief that abnormal behavior is due to the subconscious conflicts from childhood o Hysterical blindness 6) Iceberg hierarchy of psychological thought o Conscious: present thoughts and emotions (lecture) o Preconscious: Recent events, thoughts, and emotions (lecture) o Unconscious: “socially unacceptable” thoughts, traumatic past events, embarrassing/harmful thoughts or memories (lecture) 7) Repetition Compulsion: the tendency to return to things or people that are familiar. The unconscious desires to succeed in relationships or tasks that you previously failed (lecture) 8) Psychoanalytic Theory: Freud’s theory that the mind is divided into three parts (page 49) o Id: operates for pleasure, home to biological and psychological drives; resides in the unconscious (page 49) o Ego: operates on the reality principle, acts as a mediator between the Id and the Superego; resides in the conscious (page 49) o Superego: the sense of conscience, home to societal standards and rules (page 49) Conflict between superego and ego = moral anxiety Conflict between id and ego = neurotic anxiety Ego protects itself by using defense mechanisms o Defense mechanisms: unconscious self-deceptions that reduce conscious anxiety by distorting anxiety-producing memories, emotions, and impulses (page 49) Denial: insistence that an experience, memory, or need did not occur or exist (page 49) Displacement: Feelings or actions are transferred from one person or object to another that is less threatening (page 49) Projection: Attributing one’s own feelings or thoughts to other people (page 49) Rationalization: Intellectually justifying a feeling or event (page 49) Reaction Formation: Converting a painful or unacceptable feeling into its opposite (page 49) Repression: Suppressing threatening material from consciousness but without denial (page 49) Sublimation: Diverting id impulses into constructive and acceptable outlets 9) George Valliant’s Classification Scale (all lecture) o Level 1: Pathological Defenses A person feels the need to distort reality so as to not face their problem (the most serious level) Person shapes their own reality to avoid or lessen their anxiety Without treatment could lead to more serious levels of psychosis o Level 2: Immature Defenses Goal is to lessen anxiety and levels of psychological discomfort People at this level don’t typically distort their view of reality People in this stage are often seen as immature (hence the name of this stage!) o Level 3: Neurotic Defenses A person at this stage tends to exhibit behaviors that help with short- term coping, but are often detrimental in the long term Example: Repression or Reaction Formation; these defense mechanisms may help them feel less anxiety in the moment, but the person is only covering up the problem o Level 4: Mature Defenses These defenses are considered healthy for both short and long term People who are in this stage tend to exhibit traits of psychological health. They still feel the anxiety, but have adapted their mind to cope more effectively Example: Acceptance and forgiveness 10)Psychosexual stages o Oral: (0-1) phase in which the mouth is the center of pleasure o Anal: (1-3) child learns tidiness and determination o Phallic: (3-5) child discovers genitals and begins feeling attracted to the opposite sex o Latency: (5-6) little to no sexual desires present o Genital: (puberty-adulthood) desire for intimate relationships and sexual intercourse 11)Complexes o Oedipus Complex: Freud’s theory that boys have sexual desire for their mothers. o Electra Complex: Freud’s theory that girls “envy” the opposite sex and feel that they are missing a penis. Also called penis envy. Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective History: 1) Cognitive-Behavioral: this perspective believes that abnormal behaviors are caused by learning 2) Ivan Pavlov o Classical Conditioning: learning through association (page50) Dogs and meat powder o Extinction: occurs over time once a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus (page 50) 3) B. F. Skinner o Operant Conditioning: belief that behavior a function of its consequences (page 50) Skinner box, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, etc. 4) John B. Watson o Behaviorism: Belief that observable behavior is the only appropriate subject matter for the science of psychology due to the inability to measure emotions and thoughts Humanistic Perspective History: 1) Based on the belief that behavior is the product of free will. 2) Considered a philosophy rather than a school of psychology, since free will is not measurable or comparable. 3) Believes that human nature is inherently good Problems with Paradigms: 1) Don’t get locked into any one paradigm. 2) Each one has a valuable perspective of the overall picture 3) There are problems with each model, hence why one school of thought alone cannot explain much without looking towards the others. Systems Theory 1) Systems theory: an integrative approach to science that embraces not only the importance of multiple contributions to causality, but also their interdependence. 2) Includes Biopsychosocial model 3) If you affect one part, you affect all of it 4) Holism: the idea that the whole is more than the sum of its parts (page 51) 5) Reductionism: attempts to understand problems by focusing on smaller and smaller units (page 51) 6) Diathesis: a predisposition toward developing a disorder (page 52) 7) Diathesis-Stress Model: Psychosis is a combination of diathesis and stress being applied at the same time for a prolonged period of time (page 52) a. Equifinality: many ways to the same end (page 52) b. Multifinality: the same event can lead to different outcomes (page 52) 8) Risk Factors: multiple stressors that might contribute to mental disorders (page 52) 9) Correlational Coefficient: a statistic for measuring how strongly two factors are related (page 53) 10)Reverse Causality: indicates that causation could be operating in the opposite direction (page 53) 11)Third Variable: indicates that the problem could be due to a third factor’s influence on the relationship of the variables being measured (page 53) Developmental Psychopathology 1) Developmental Psychopathology: an approach to abnormal psychology that emphasizes change over time a. EX: bedwetting might be acceptable for a 2-3 year-old, but it is not acceptable for a 30 year-old. 2) Premorbid History: a pattern of behavior that precedes the onset of the disorder (page 53) 3) Prognosis: a predictable course of a disorder (page 53) Biological Factors: 1) Impact of the body’s biochemistry on psychology a. Hormones, chemistry, genetics, neurons, neurotransmitters, brain structure 2) Neuron: a nerve cell; the basic building block of the brain a. Dendrite, Soma, Axon, and Axon Terminals (message is received and transmitted in this order) 3) Synapse: a small gap between neurons filled with fluid (page 54) a. Medium through which neurotransmitters flow b. Gap is between the axon terminals and the dendrites of two neurons 4) Neurotransmitters: chemical substances used to transfer messages from one neuron to the other (page 54) 5) Receptors: Dendrites of the synapse (page 54) 6) Reuptake: reabsorption (page 55) a. Some neurotransmitters are not received by their target, and are instead reabsorbed by the sender axon to be used for later messages. Neurons want to make sure the message is received, so sometimes it sends more neurotransmitters to make sure the message is properly delivered. 7) The brain is divided into three specific sections a. Hindbrain- regulates body functions (medulla, pons, cerebellum) b. Midbrain- regulates motor activities c. Forebrain- regulates sensory, emotional, and cognitive functions i. The three parts of the brain are linked by the Limbic System (page 57) ii. Thalamus and hypothalamus 8) Hypothalamus: center of control of basic biological functions (autonomic functions) (page 57) 9) Cerebral Hemispheres: the separation of the forebrain into two distinct hemispheres that have distinct roles (page 58) 10)Lateralized: the term describing the specialization of each hemisphere of the brain being different from the other (page 58) 11)The left side of the brain is primarily concerned with creative processes like language and art, while the right side of the brain is primarily concerned with analysis and rationalizing 12)The two are joined by the corpus callosum 13)Ventricles: Four connected chambers of the forebrain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (page 58) 14)Cerebral Cortex: the uneven surface of the brain found just beneath the skull (page 58) a. Consists of the frontal (reasoning), parietal (sensory), temporal (sound/smell/emotion), and occipital lobes (visual stimuli). Psychophysiology 1) Psychophysiology: study of changes in the functioning of the body that result from psychological experiences (page 58) a. Ex) shaking, increased heart rate, shortness of breath, or dizziness/fainting when you meet your favorite music artist 2) Endocrine System: a collection of major glands found throughout the body (page 58) a. Hormones: chemical substances that affect the functioning of body systems (can sometimes act as neurotransmitters) (page 58) 3) Autonomic Nervous System: regulates the involuntary actions of the body like the heart and digestive system. (While you may be able to control breathing voluntarily for a short time, breathing is primarily a function of the ANS) (page 59) a. Sympathetic Nervous System- primarily deals with increased stress/arousal and energy expenditures b. Parasympathetic: primarily deals with saving the body’s energy and slowing arousal 4) Genes: ultramicroscopic units of DNA that carry information about a person/organism’s heredity (page 59) 5) Chromosomes: chainlike structures found in the nucleus of a cell (page 59) 6) Behavior Genetics: study of genetic influences on normal and abnormal behavior (page 59) 7) Genotype: a person’s genetic structure (page 59) 8) Phenotype: the expression of a genotype (page 59) 9) Polygenic: a trait that is influenced by multiple alleles (page 60) a. This can cause a vast amount of discretion with psychological disorders. It creates a spectrum on which to measure a patient’s experiences. 10)Probands: indexes that measure the frequency of a certain disorder within a family (page 60) a. Helps to determine if genetics are involved or if it is a few individual cases that are unusual 11)Twin studies are the primary focus of psychophysiology due to their genetic similarity 12)Monozygotic Twins: identical twins (page 60) 13)Dizygotic Twins: fraternal twins (page 60) 14)Concordance rate: whether or not both twins (MZ or DZ) either suffer from or are free of a disorder (Page 60) 15)Shared environment: experiences that twins have in common, depicts a high concordance rate (page 60) 16)Non-shared Environment: each twin has a unique experience, depicts a low concordance rate (page 61) 17)Adopted children (especially adopted twins) are another focus of psychophysiological studies to see how much of an impact their genes have when they are raised apart from their biological parents. Psychological Factors 1) Human Nature: attachment and dominance a. Humans have an innate desire to be close to others and to form relationships b. Need to be dominant/superior to someone 2) Evolutionary Psychology: the applications of the principles of evolution to the understanding of animal and human minds (page 62) a. Natural selection is one of the main theories promoted by evolutionary psychology; it states that those who have better adapted to their environment will pass on those traits and in so doing, will make their offspring more likely to flourish 3) Attachments: selective bonds between humans; typically in reference to a child and its primary caregiver (page 64) 4) Dominance: the hierarchical ordering of a social group into more and less privileged members (page 64) a. As stated earlier, humans have a natural drive to seek out dominance 5) Temperament: characteristic styles of relating to the world (page 64) a. Also known as personality b. “Goodness of Fit” Model c. Five dimensions (you often see these in personality tests!) i. Openness to experiences ii. Conscientiousness iii. Extraversion iv. Agreeableness v. Neuroticism 6) Modeling: learning by imitating (children imitating their parents) (page 65) 7) Sense of Self: How you see yourself (page 66) 8) Self Esteem: how much you value yourself; your relationship with yourself (page 66) 9) Emotions: internal feeling states (page 65) a. Six basic emotions i. Love ii. Anger iii. Joy iv. Sadness v. Surprise vi. Fear b. Self-talk can help create a better sense of control over one’s emotions c. Emotional eloquence = better emotional health i. Do a self-check in. How big is your problem? ii. Increasing emotional vocabulary can help you understand yourself and others better and can help you cope with the emotions you are feeling. 10)Identity: an integrated sense of self (page 66) 11)Self-Control: internal rules for appropriate behavior (page 66) 12)Developmental stages: Periods of time marked by age and/or social tasks in which certain social or emotional crisis is faced (see Freud’s stages mentioned previously) (page 66) Social Factors 1) Social factors include relationships, gender, societal gender roles, poverty, prejudice, and other society-based relationship factors 2) Social Support: the emotional and practical assistance received from others (page 68) a. “Assistance” can be active or passive. Simply being accepted provides a positive form of emotional support that helps people flourish and develop healthily. Whereas those who are not accepted may develop a poor sense of self-esteem and may eventually develop personality disorders. 3) Gender Roles: Expectations regarding the appropriate behavior of males or females (page 68) 4) Prejudice, Poverty, and Society a. Prejudice and poverty increase the risk for psychological disorders due to lack of emotional support/acceptance and exposure to anxiety b. Poverty and prejudice increases exposure to environmental stressors c. Societal practices, beliefs, etc. can cause anxiety for someone who does not hold the same values or beliefs popularly held in their community. References th Oltmanns, T.F., Emery R.E. (2015). Abnormal Psychology 8 Edition. Pearson. New Jersey.