Social Psychology Week 3 Lecture Notes
Social Psychology Week 3 Lecture Notes Psyc 3580
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivy Notetaker on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3580 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Gitter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Social Psychology Dr. Gitter 8/30/16 Cultural Implications of SelfConcept Independent/individualist Self is stable. Goalbe unique. Promote own goals. “The squeaky wheel gets the grease.” Interdependent/collectivist Self is flexible. Goalbelong. Promote group goals. “The nail that stands out gets pounded down.” Norms Rules for expected and accepted behavior o Prescribe proper behavior. o Describe what others do. Ex. football traditions at Auburn vs. at Minnesota Ex. calling water fountains “fountains” or “bubblers” Ex. saying “y’all” or “you guys” Ex. saying soft drink, soda, pop, coke, etc. to refer to a carbonated beverage Ex. different types of food in different region of U.S. Proxemics: how close or far away you stand to others while in conversation; “buffer zones”; varies with individuals and groups Cultures near the equator prefer less space. Men prefer more space than women. Nature AND Nurture? Nature vs. Nurture: FALSE DICHOTOMY Interactionist perspective the effect of one factor depends on another factor; the approach we will take in the class Nature and nurture is more of a sliding scale than one or the other. Genes Environment Ex. January is a busy birthday month for NHL players because of little league start dates in Dec. or Jan.; older on the team=bigger than teammates=better player= more coach attention=more improvement=pro Culture and Nature Nature prepared us for culture. Dunbar study: Analyzed brain size in animals compared to their body weight. Larger brain=more social animals Dunbar conclusion: Our larger brains are designed to help us relate to one another. o Evolution prepared us to deal with complex social environments. Group Differences Level One major difference in humans that might lead to different section pressures: o **biological sex Several different theories relating to problems that male and female ancestors faced: o Minimal Parent Investment o Paternity certainty how certain a parent is if the child is their own Men not as certain as women because women carry the child. EMT and Reproductive Success Minimal Parent Investment o What is the minimum time a male vs. female must devote to reproduction? Male= 1 minute, Females= at least 9 months o Problem with numbers: not enough partners for men, not fast enough reproduction for women. o Women should be more choosey with mates; men should be less choosey with mates. Mate Strategies Clark and Hatfield Study (1978): asked male and female research assistants to engage someone on the street of equal attraction to them, introduce themselves, and ask 1 of 3 questions: 1. Go out with me? (answered yes) males=55%, females= 55% 2. Go back to my place? (answered yes) males=77%, females= 38% 3. Have sex with me? (answered yes) males=78%, females= 0% Remember, the focus is on the least costly mistake. o Males not mating when opportunity is available Men will be more active in pursuing sex. Rselectionists o Females mating with someone who is unwilling and able to provide. Women will be choosier and require more for sexual behaviors. Kselectionists (k= German word that means carrying capacity) Gender Differences: Nurturing and Childrearing Gender identity our sense of being male or female o Often leads to gendertyping Acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. Not exclusively a result of parenting! **In more developed countries, there is less gender roles than in underdeveloped countries. Nature vs. Culture Nature says GO, culture says STOP. o Impulses: May be influenced by innate, evolutionary based processes. o We must stop impulses in the interest of culture: Sexual norms not acceptable to have sex every time you have a lustful thought. Passing on our own desires for the interest of others. Unfortunately, for our minds, culture often moves faster than evolution… that isn’t always a good thing! o Some biological drives aren’t well suited to the current environment. Ex. Preference for sweet and fatty foods good long time ago when humans didn’t have immediate access to foods all the time like we do now, so that leads to obesity. Luckily we have… o The self Aids in monitoring and correcting one’s behavior. 9/1/16 Constructing the Self Intrapersonal social psychology inside the person; psychological theories of the self and its behaviors Interpersonal social psychology how people interact with each other; we will study this during the 2 part of the semester The Self: Social psychology is the study of the self in relation to others. So what is the self? Individuals’ understanding of themselves and their personality, strengths, weaknesses, and relationships and how we use it to satisfy our needs. Important tool for humans to satisfy needs. o Not completely distinct to humans, but more complex than any other animal. Mirror test test to see if animal can recognize self o Put ash (or something similar) on animal’s (or baby’s) forehead while he is sleeping and put him in front of mirror some know to wipe it off forehead, some think it is another animal. Animals that have passed: humans, dogs, dolphins, elephants Animals that have failed: all the rest, especially cats o Human babies: recognize self in mirror at about 18 months old, recognize that their actions affect others and have consequences at about 2 years old. The Self is composed of 3 major components: 1. Reflexive consciousness Aka selfknowledge, selfconcept I am ___. Retains info about who you think you are. Understanding about relationships. Private selfawareness attending to information about the self o Look in the mirror lately? o I am a bad/good… Person I am ashamed/proud of myself. Student I passed/failed the test. Golfer I shot below par yesterday. o Sometimes inaccurate or biased; sometimes people never put themselves in an evaluative situation 2. Interpersonal self relates to others How you perceive others perceiving you How you relate “who you are” to others o I am ___ statements in relation to others Attending to info about how others view you Public self awareness looking glass self o Looking to others to attain info about the self. Smiles vs. frowns Evaluation forms o Am I ____? Meeting other’s expectations Feeling guilty/embarrassment Better/worse than that guy (social comparison) Self is constantly concerned with gaining acceptance. Drivers of human behavior: 1. Autonomy 2. Competence 3. Relativeness Self presentation how we show off the self to others o How often do you… Swear in front of your parents Walk around naked in public Hold back a smile/tears Go along with the crowd Theory of Planned Behavior: o Norms what society deems acceptable o Personal standards private attitudes and opinions o Desired impression norms vs. personal standards o Ex. Uncle you disagree with at Thanksgiving do you ignore him or yell and defend your beliefs 3. Argentic self Self is active not passive. Attends and corrects. o Selfcontrol: self’s ability to override impulse Should I act based on immediate selfinterest or… Longterm goals/desires of others? The Working Selfconcept: o Takes info from Selfstandards (from reflexive consciousness) Other’s expectations o Decides what is important for defining the self Selfschema framework of beliefs about the selfconcept o Organized info about the self Structured like memory, but contains selfrelevant info Domains of selfworth=school, family, person **Less organized info=more dysfunctional person. Working selfconcept draws up what is most important right now. o Student domain at the forefront while in class. o Romantic domain at the front when with significant other. Domains that are accessed will vary across person and situation. “Test on Friday”= more academic First date= romantic domain Many self domains accessed for any given situation. Where do we get this information from? 3 motives for assessing information about ourselves: 1. Appraisal motive gauging abilities; regardless of how positive or negative it is o Selfefficacy perceived ability to perform in a certain domain; self confidence 2. Consistency motive double checking the self; regardless of positive or negative o Selfverification actively working to confirm beliefs about the self 3. Selfenhancement motive info used to bolster the self; we prefer to see ourselves positively Order of importance? Experiment: offered participant 3 types of information and let them pick which type they wanted to know. Also, got to pick what info another person (Chris) got to find out. Logical ordering appraisal, consistency, selfenhancement Actual ordering selfenhancement, consistency, appraisal How accurate is this info of… Is there really such a thing as a true self? Not really. Introspective inferences about the self from past behavior How much do people think about themselves? Csikszentmihalyi and Figurski (1982) Beeper study o 107 workers o Ages 1963 o Beeped 79 times throughout the day and had to answer questions about what they were thinking about o Results: Work= 15% of the time (most) Self=7% The fallacy of introspection We often fail to evaluate the self accurately because we aren’t evaluating ourselves! o Lake of awareness Are you a good driver? Don’t notice our own errors in driving unless someone informs us. Focus on things we do well and ignore/discount the stuff we do poorly. Reflexively evaluating our behavior is only one source of information. Does the interpersonal self result in more accurate info? Problem with the looking glass self: Disconnect between: o What we think others think of us and o What they actually think of us Why? o We don’t have access to what they are actually thinking o Others (friends) are not always honest. o We aren’t always receptive to all info He thinks I’m a jerk… But that’s just because he’s the jerk.
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