GY 101 WEEK TWO NOTES
GY 101 WEEK TWO NOTES GY 101-002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isett Notetaker on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GY 101-002 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Sherman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Atmospheric Processes and Patterns in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
GY 101 WEEK TWO Our Corner of the Universe 8/30 Earth Rotation, Orbit and the Seasons • only 50.5 of the Earth’s surface can be “lit” by the sun • because the Earth is tilted, the area covered by this 50.6 varies Most important variables • Earth’s orbit is 365.25 days long • Earth’s axis of rotation tilts 23.5 from the perpendicular ◦ these 2 variables account for the seasonal changes in weather papers that we observe in a given year Latitude • affects the anoint of insolation received at the earths surface • the sub solar point (at the right angles to the plane of the ecliptic) receives most insolation ◦ insolation decreases north and south of this Sun Angles • impact the amount of insolation • daylight hours ◦ seasonal ◦ October March lowsun ◦ April September highsun • Solar Declination ◦ latitude where sun is directly overhead (90 degrees) 9/1 Introduction to Instrumentation and Atmospheric Composition Basic Instrumentation • Thermometers • Rain Gauges • Barometers • Anemometers and Wind Vanes • Hygrographs • Solar Radiometers Standard Maximum/Minimum Thermometer • How does it work? **picture of thermometer pointing to markers and mercury** Units of Temperature: • Degrees (C or F), or Kelvins Barometer • Mercury Barometer ◦ Invented by Torreceli (1644) • Anerord Barometer ◦ Vidie (1843) • Units of Pressures ◦ inches or millimeters of mercury ◦ PSI, Pa, Bar (milibar): 1 bar = 100kPa ◦ Standar Atmosphere (14.7 psi, 29.92, 760mm, 1013.2 mb) Anemometers measures how fast the wind blows Sling Psychrometer most basic instrument used to measure relative humidity The Atmosphere • Etymology ◦ atmos: vapor ◦ Sphere: Sphere! • Definition ◦ layer of gases around the planter that ar held in place by gravity ◦ modulates surface environment radiation/heat flow precipitation Source of the Atmosphere • 1st atmosphere ◦ earth formed 4.6 billion years ago ◦ mainly H2 and He • 2nd Atmosphere ◦ formed by “outgassing” ◦ mainly H2O, CO2, SO2, CO, and N2 • Modern Atmosphere ◦ loss of oxygen compounds ◦ increase in O2 Composition of the Atmosphere • Main gases ◦ Nitrogen (about 80% of the atmosphere) ◦ Oxygen (about 20% of the atmosphere) ◦ Argon ◦ Carbon Dioxide ◦ Water • Trace Gases ◦ Methane, CH4; Nitrous Oxide, N20; Carbon Monoxide, CO; Ozone O3; NItrogen Dioxide, NO2 • Aerosols Density of Air and Atmospheric Pressure (No need to memorize these equations) • Ceteris Paribus; essentially everything else equals ◦ Reductionism • Ideal Gas Law ◦ p = P/RT ◦ p is density of material, P is pressure, R is gas constant ◦ (297.05 j/kg k), and T is absolute temperature • Hydrostatic Pressure Equation ◦ P = pgh ◦ g is gravity constant (9.8 ms^2) and h is height Structure of the Atmosphere (by temperature) • Thermosphere: > 80 km • Mesosphere: 5080 km • Stratosphere: 1850 km • Troposphere: < 18 km • Ozonosphere: 1550 km • Ionosphere: 50100 km
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