Intro to Psychology Notes
Intro to Psychology Notes Psyc
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Swider Notetaker on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc at East Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at East Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Intro to Psychology; Notes, Week 2 Definitions Science: A method for learning about reality through systematic observation and experimentation. Objectivity: The practice of basing conclusions on facts without influence of personal emotion and bias. Critical Thinking: The ability to think clearly, rationally, and independently. Theory: A set of facts and relationships between facts that can explain and predict related phenomena. Hypothesis: A proposed explanation for a situation, usually taking the form “if A happens, then B will be the result.” Generally, the product of deductive reasoning. Peer Review: The process of having other experts examine research prior to its publication. Replication: Repeating an experiment and producing the same results. Descriptive Method: Research methods designed for making careful, systematic observations. Case Study: An indepth analysis of the behavior of one person or a small number of people. Advantages: great detail; provides information about rare occurrences. Disadvantages: retrospective data; lack of generalizability. Naturalistic Observation: An indepth study of a phenomenon in its natural setting. Observer Effect (Reactivity): the tendency of people or animals behave differently when they know they are being observed. o One way to reduce reactivity is to engage in participant observation. Survey: A descriptive method in which participants are asked the same questions. Surveys are a great way to collect large amounts of information in a short amount of time. Surveys can be conducted via telephone, internet, paperandpencil forms, or in person interviews. Disadvantage: Social. Sample: A subset of a population being studied. Population: the entire group from which a sample is taken. Correlation: A measure of the direction and strength of the relationship between two variables. Provides information about both the strength and direction of the relationship. Basic Method: Intro to Psychology; Notes, Week 2 o Measure factors that are though to be related. o Examine the relationship between factors. Variable: A factor that has a range of values. Measure: A method for describing a variable’s quantity. Third Variable: A variable that is responsible for a correlation observed between two other variables of interest. Experiment: A research method that tests hypotheses and allows researchers to make conclusions about causality. Independent Variable: An experimental variable controlled and manipulated by the experimenter; the “if A happens” part of a hypothesis. Dependent Variable: A measure that demonstrates the effects of an independent variable; the “result” part of a hypothesis. Control Group: A group that experiences all experimental procedures with the exception of exposure to the independent variable. Experimental Group: A group of participants that is exposed to the independent variable. Random Assignment: The procedure in which each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group in an experiment. Best way to ensure control of extraneous variables. Theoretically, groups should be equivalent on all important characteristics. Confounding Variable: Variables that are irrelevant to the hypothesis being tested but can alter a researcher’s conclusions. Operationalization: Defining variables in practical terms. Metaanalysis: A statistical analysis of many previous experiments on a single topic. Doubleblind Procedure: A research design that controls for placebo effects in which neither the participant nor the experimenter observing the participant knows whether the participant was given an active substance or treatment or a placebo. Placebo: An inactive substance or treatment that cannot be distinguished from a real, active substance or treatment. Crosssectional Study: An experimental design for assessing agerelated changes in which data are obtained simultaneously from people of differing ages. Longitudinal Study: An experimental design for assessing agerelated changes in which data are obtained from the same individuals at intervals over a long period. Intro to Psychology; Notes, Week 2 Mixed Longitudinal Design: A method for assessing agerelated changes that combines the crosssectional and longitudinal approaches by observing a crosssection of participants over a shorter period than is used typically in longitudinal studies. Reliability: The consistency of a measure, including testretest, interrater, intermethod, and internal consistency. Validity: A quality of a measure that leads to valid conclusions (i.e., the measure measures the concept it was designed to measure). Descriptive Statistics: Statistical methods that organize data into meaningful patterns and summaries, such as finding the average value. Mean: The numerical average of a set of scores. Median: The halfway mark in a set of data, with half of the scores above and half below. Mode: The most frequently occurring score in a set of data. Standard Deviation: A measure of how tightly clustered a group of scores is around the mean. Normal Distribution: A symmetrical probability function. Inferential Statistics: Statistical methods that allow experimenters to extend conclusions from samples to larger populations. Generalize: To extend conclusions to larger populations outside your research sample. Null Hypothesis: A hypothesis stating the default position that there is no real difference between two measures. Statistical Significance: A standard for deciding whether an observed result is because of chance. Informed Consent: Permission obtained from a research participant after risks and benefits of an experimental procedure have been thoroughly explained. Notes Measuring the Correlation Correlation coefficients range from 1.00 to + 1.00. o The closer the value is to +1 or 1, the stronger the relationship. Correlation and Causation Correlations only tell us that variables are related Correlation does not prove causation. Four possible explanations: o 1. X Y Intro to Psychology; Notes, Week 2 o 2. Y X o 3. X Y (Simultaneous influence – bidirectional causality) o 4. Z X QuasiExperimental Research Measures the differences between groups formed based on preexisting characteristics (participant/subject or quasiindependent variable). Because participants cannot be randomly assigned to groups, there is always the possibility that there is an alternative. Experimental Research A deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result. Goal – To establish cause and effect relationships. Three essential characteristics: o Manipulate one or more variables one or more variables. o Measure whether this manipulation influences other variables. o Attempt to control. Problems in Experimental Research Other extraneous variables: uncontrolled variables which can affect the experimental outcome. Extraneous variables become confounds when their values change systematically along with the independent variable in an experiment; do affect the experimental outcome. Experimenter bias: the unintentional effect that researchers may exert on their results. Doubleblind design: neither researchers nor subjects know who is in the experimental or control group. Placebo effect: improvement resulting for the mere expectation of improvement. Nocebo effect: harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm. Control effects by conducting blind studies. Developmental Designs Differ from other studies in that they evaluate the effects of age as a variable. Ethical Guidelines in Research Institutional Review Board: A committee charges with evaluating research projects in human participants are used. Considerations o Informed Consent and Voluntary Participation o Protection from harm. o Anonymity and confidentiality. Intro to Psychology; Notes, Week 2 Institution Animal Care and Use Committee: An institution committee that reviews proposed research to safeguard the welfare of animal subjects. Animal Welfare: The humane care and treatment of animals. Internal Validity: The certainty that the changes in behavior observed across treatment conditions in the experiment were actually caused by the independent variable; the extent to which we can draw cause and effect inferences. External Validity: The extent to which we can generalize findings to real world settings. Once data has been collects in the course of a research study, statistics are used to evaluate the results, both describing those results and drawing conclusions from them. o Descriptive Statistics o Inferential Statistics. Statistics are also used to make sure that the measures we are using to assess variables are scientifically sound. o The psychometric properties of measurement. The Issues in Measurement The measurements of variables must have two important qualities: o Reliability: Consistency. o Validity: Accuracy. A test must be reliable to be valid, but a reliable test can still be completely invalid. Reliability and validity are accessed mathematically, generally using correlation coefficients. Describing Data Descriptive Statistics: Used to summarize the results and, or illustrate trends to patterns within the data. o Measures of Central Tendency Mean, Median, and Mode. o Measures of Variability SemiInterquartile Range. Evaluating Relationships and Reaching Conclusions Inferential Statistics allow us to decide whether the observed differences between groups is due to the differing levels of the IV or is just due to chance. MetaAnalysis: A Special Type of Inferential Statistics MetaAnalysis is a statistical analysis of many prior experiments. o Often provides a clearer picture than single experiments observed in isolation.
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