HIST 1103-WEEK 3 NOTES
HIST 1103-WEEK 3 NOTES HIST 1103
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nichole Pike on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1103 at Oklahoma State University taught by Professor Prince in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
WEEK 3 HIST 1103 DISCLAIMER: THESE NOTES WERE TAKEN FROM WHAT WAS RETAINED FROM CLASS LECTURE AND TEXTBOOK READINGS. THESE ARE IN NO WAY COMPREHENSIVE, BUT SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH CLASS MATERIALS PROVIDED BY THE PROFESSOR. THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL we see exactly how the British feel at this battle 3 attacksnamed Bunker Hill because it was the main hill British treat this as open warfare British takes on 3 attack, but only b/c militia runs out of ammunition TACTICS OF REVOLUTIONARY WAR this was a deadly war because medicine doesn’t work this war was fought in towns DEATH AND DISEASE IN THE WAR medical care does not work prisoners were put on anchored ships and would stay until the duration of war more people die of disease than warfare we do not know if we can beat British at this point DEFEAT AND VICTORY IN 1776 Washington hopes for a victory in Long Island, but colonists are required to retreat when British attack at weakest point keep losing every major battle desertion occurs over and over because people don’t see the point b/c they keep losing 1/3 of army enlistments are expired and Washington realizes he now needs a victory now fighting German mercenariesget plastered on Christmas plans to attack when German mercenaries are intoxicated attack can’t take place on Christmas day because its too cold and can’t be armed attacks at 11am when they are hungover and entire regiment is destroyedno American casualties this proves to Washington’s army that they can do this; so men reenlist and is enough to keep army intact another attack on German mercenaries on New Year’s Day BATTLE OF SARATOGA ON EXAM 1777 is the year the war turns this is the first victory without the use of alcohol main battle and Burgoyne chooses to see mistress and is caught and required to surrender twofold importance British believe by now that the Americans will lose so they are cocky it also shows the world that the Americans can actually beat the British this battle leads directly to treaty with France no united states without the French FRENCH AID this aid keeps the American colonies going French government provides all sorts of supplies to American colonies they will send money, advisors and declare war on Britain, and send army and navy troops they have been waiting to get back at Britain from the French and Indian War they won’t join until they know they can win unintended consequencesspend so much that they go bankrupt enough to go into French Revolution and dissolve monarchy HARDENING OF THE CONTINENTAL ARMY continental army still cannot win we go into winter quarters so they just set up camp in the winter instead of fighting b/c its too cold army is almost destroyed during “winter quarters” these men show determination and those who survived created a solid army for Washington 1778 we begin having more American victories and it is b/c of this determination FOREIGN ADVISORS these two guys reform the American army Lafayette is wealthy but believes in liberty; he alone probably helps save the revolution when he dies; the U.S. sends American soil to have him buried in in WWI they declare that they will repay debt to France ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION we don’t know if we’ll win but we might survive the articles of confederation suck at this time one house legislature no taxation; determined by states how is the army funded?, bridges built, etc. this does not work BETRAYAL AT WEST POINT, 1780 Gates wants to be Washington so Arnold gets put elsewhere b/c disability and Gates receives credit Arnold’s wife was partial to British and planned to get rid of Washington (almost successful British spy was caught) was willing to betray America in order to lead troops for Britain to British, the war should have lasted one year maybe two tops at this time, we enter the 6 year of war SIEGE OF YORKTOWN one of the most important battles of the war completely onesided; the British have no way to win (stuck in Yorktown) British are outnumbered, out of supplies and can’t go anywhere should know date of British surrender British realize there is no point in continuing after this and decide to divert attention French tries to surrender to French commander whom directs the British officer to surrender to Washington (he knew the historical impact) British commander cannot understand how peasants could beat the best army in the world THE FRENCH INVOLVEMENT we could not have done this without the French more French troops in field than Americans and are still completely bankrupt 1783 is when war actually ends even though in 1781 is when armed warfare ends we believe in individual rights and the government should reflect the ideals of people everything we believed in is almost destroyed people want to see their payments THE NEWBURGH CONSPIRACY Newburgh Conspiracymany continental army officers meet to try and take control of government despite the fact that this whole time we have been saying we want the opposite Washington was not invited to meeting and shows up anyway Washington campaigns to have something other than Articles of Confederation hits everyone in their feelings b/c he devoted his whole life for America the conspiracy crumbles in minutes when they realize where their loyalties lie this shows that the civilians run the military and not the other way around you don’t want military running the show (ex. of President not required to be ex military) TREATY OF PARIS (1783) ON EXAM (EITHER ‘63 OR ‘83) this marks the US becoming a world power treaty doubles size of United States we now have a nation but it comes with a price we have a lot of work to go THE BIRTH OF A NEW NATION we have to actually create a nation Britain is slow to evacuate (this debt is their bargaining chip) huge debt owed no economic structure to pay off debts Britain thought that in 1020 years the Americans would come back BIRTH OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC ATTEMPTING REFORM no one was thinking about what we do if we actually win land ordinances in the Articles of Confederation was actually useful in a couple of years, slavery was not allowed in northwest states where land ordinances were to be Articles of Confederation were not up to the task of ending slavery and disputes between northern and southern states and their sides recommend Congress to have an assembly to address problems of the articles (strengthen) SHAYS’ REBELLION (1786) old continental army officer but didn’t like what was going on in home state of Mass. debtors prison is not feasible so Shays rebels we need a more permanent framework there is no army to put down rebellion or anything that the federal government can do to stop it up until the 2 world war we had one of the smallest armies the smaller is less threatening and won’t be send and today we are the 2 largest people in congress become alarmed militia crushes Shays rebellion social challenges are still there and debt is still owed this convinces congress that the Anapolis convention is a good idea and the Articles need to be strengthen THE CONSTITUTIONREACTIONARY? people in congress become alarmed militia crushes Shays rebellion social challenges are still there and debt is still owed this convinces congress that the Anapolis convention is a good idea and the Articles need to be strengthen VIRGINIA AND NEW JERSEY PLANS if we have a strong central government, what are the rights of the people, states, etc. this debate lasts a long time how will representation be decided? two plans Virginia Planmost populist, more power New Jersey Planeveryone has representation we have the Great Compromises (Connecticut Comprise) today a blend of the two different state plans deciding representation is still not enough SLAVE ADVERTISEMENT these advertisements were common place north turns this into something that they can use for an advantage south demands that slaves count towards representation but not for taxes idea that south is racist and north is not DEALING WITH SLAVERY both just as racist people in the north want to count cattle towards representation if south can count slaves to avoid civil warwe have the 3/5 comprise all persons in bondage are 3/5 of a person for purposes of taxation and representation (they need the counts for advantage in house for representation) don’t deal with slavery but say that future generations will be dealing with it this builds up and explodes into civil war thought is that slavery will die out and thus isn’t dealt with or that it will need to expand to survive cotton takes the place of tobacco so it does not die out and ruins plant DEBATING RATIFICATION they need to get a document out quickly because they don’t have time antifederalists oppose the constitution but are not a political party THE ANTIFEDERALISTS they realize this hasn’t been done before so it would be really easy to screw up we are not a democracy; we ARE a constitutional republic claimed we didn’t want uninformed people voting THE FEDERALISTS the most popular people are federalistsmore persuasive than antifederalists federalists are afraid of masses THE STRUGGLE FOR RATIFICATION really close vote fear of what it undoes what revolution sought to do The bill of rights caters to these fears THE BILL OF RIGHTS we argue that our rights come from the nature of being born; not from being born in America or just given to us 23 amendments were proposed and 10 were chosen part of the right to bear arms is we don’t want a large standing army right to bear arms (so militia could operate effectively) state has the ability to decide things not delegated by Constitution APRIL 30, 1789 when Washington takes office we have a working constitution and government and the challenge is making this work effectively antifederalist tradition RESULT antifederalist traditions BUILDING A NATION CREATING THE PRESIDENCY Washington was not as great of a president because of what he did but because of what he didn’t do presidency day to day activities must be laid out FACTIONALIZING INTO POLITICAL PARTIES no one anticipated the forming of different political parties James Madison drafted constitution and was federalists the Constitution is not set up for political parties first election we see that this clearly doesn’t work government is really tiny 6 cabinet members we have a huge amount of debt JEFFERSON VS. HAMILTON with these two we get 2 interpretations Hamiltonloose constructionif it doesn’t say anything about it; you can do it Jeffersonstrictunless it says you can do it; then you can’t CONTINUATION OF DOCUMENTARY