Homework Notes, "Chapter 2 Notes"
Homework Notes, "Chapter 2 Notes" 308
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Lloyd on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 308 at Texas A&M University taught by Kylene Wesner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Communications in COMM at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Research Design Chapter One, Creswell Notes The Selection of a Research Approach ● Research approaches are plans and the procedures for research that span the steps from broad assumptions to detailed methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation ● Which approach should be used to study a topic ● Research designs: procedures of inquiry ● Research methods: data analysis, collection, and interpretation ● Research problem: issue being addressed ● Three Approaches to Research ○ Qualitative: Words, open ended questions, case studies, observations ■ Exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem ■ Process: emerging questions and procedures, data collection in participant’s setting, data analysis along themes, flexibly structured final report ■ Inductive style, focus on individual meaning, complexities of a situation ○ Quantitative: Numbers, closed ended questions, experiments, theories ■ Examining the relationship among variables (which can be measured on instruments) to find statistical results ■ Final report has a structure of introduction, literature and theory, methods, results, and discussion. ■ Deductive style, build protection against bias, controls for alternative explanations, and generalize and replicate findings ○ Mixed Methods: resides in the middle of Qualitative and Quantitative approaches ■ Collecting and integrating from both types of data ■ Philosophical assumptions and theoretical frameworks ■ Combination of research approaches provides a more complete understanding of the research problem ● Three Components Involved in an Approach ○ Philosophical Worldviews:think of what the larger picture is of why you chose the research question and your approach to research. Worldview: a basic set of beliefs that guide an action (aka paradigms, epistemologies, ontologies, or broadly conceived methodologies). Similar to a Bias. Postpositivism Constructionism ● Determination ● Understanding ● Reductionism ● Multiple participant meanings ● Empirical Observation and ● Personal, Social, and measurement Historical construction ● Theory verification ● Theory generation Transformative Pragmatism ● Political ● Consequences of actions ● Power and justice oriented ● Problemcentered ● Collaborative ● Pluralistic ● Changeoriented ● Realworld practice oriented ■ Postpositivism Worldview ● Aka scientific method, science research, empirical science ● Challenges a knowledge of absolute truth and claims when studying human behavior and actions ● Knowledge is conjectural and antifoundational, absolute truth can never be found. ● Evidence in research is always imperfect and fallible. ● Do not prove hypotheses; indicate a failure to reject a hypothesis. ● Make claims and refining or abandoning them as other stronger claims come forward. Test of a theory. ● Data, evidence, and rational shape knowledge. Based on instruments, participants, or observations ● Develop relevant true statements that serve to explain situations of concern or interest. Redefine relationships of variables with new questions ● Objectivity. Examine methods and conclusions for bias, validity, and reliability ■ Constructivist Worldview ● Social constructivists: believe individuals seek understanding of the world in which they live and work. They wish to develop subjective meaning from their experiences ● An individual’s background shapes interpretation ● Intent is to interpret of the meanings others have in this world ● Construct meanings as they engage the world they’re interpreting ● Openended Questions so participants can share their views ● Humans interpret their world based on their historical and social perspectives ● It’s all about the context and setting that information is grown and gathered in ● Inquirer generates meaning from the data collected in the field ■ Transformative Worldview ● No uniformity of literature characterizing this view ● Individuals who follow this position feel the postpositivist assumptions imposed structural laws and theories that did not fit marginalized individuals in our society or issues of power and social justice, discrimination, and oppression that needs to be addressed. ● Constructivist stance does not go far enough for advocating an action agenda for marginalized people (minorities) ● Research inquiries must be intertwined with social and political change to confront social oppression and create reform ● Researchers often use a social issue for a focal point e.g. inequality, empowerment, oppression, suppression, alienation ● Provides an united voice for these marginalized minorities ■ Pragmatic Worldview ● Actions, situations, and consequences rather than antecedent conditions ● Focus on application and solutions instead of methods and questions what and how ● Freedom to choose methods, techniques, and procedures ● Use all available methods to collect and analyze data ● Research always occurs in social, historical, political, and other contexts ○ Designs: strategies of inquiry Quantitative Qualitative Mixed Methods ● Experimenta ● Narrative ● Convergent l design research ● Explanatory ● Nonexperim ● Phenomenol sequential ental designs, like ogy ● Exploratory surveys ● Grounded sequential theory ● Transformati ● Ethnographi ve, embedded, or es multiphase ● Case Studies ■ Quantitative Designs ● Experimental: True experiments, Quasi experiments, Applied behavioral analysis (or Singlesubject experiments), ○ Seeks to determine a specific treatment’s potential to influence an outcome. Compare and contrast two diffferent groups. ● Nonexperimental: causal comparative research (compare in terms of a cause), correlational design (correlational statistics used to describe association/relationships) ○ Surveys: numeric description of trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by studying a sample. Uses questionnaires and structured interviews for data collection as well. Intent of generalizing information. ■ Qualitative (Ethnographies) ● Grounded theory: sociology design which takes a general theory of a process or action grounded in the views of participants. Stages of data collection and refinement of information ● Ethnography: anthropology and sociology design where shared patterns of behavior, language, and actions of an intact cultural group in a natural setting over a long period of time. Observation and interviews. ● Narrative research: researcher studies the lives of individuals and ask for stories about their lives. Information is retold by the researcher in narrative chronology. Combines views of participant with researcher for a collaborative narrative ● Phenomenological research: philosophy and psychology is used to describe the experiences of an individuals about an phenomenon. Typically involves conducting interviews. ● Case Studies: evaluation used for in depth analysis of a case or event. Bounded by time and activity, collect detailed information using a variety of data collection procedures over a long period of time. ■ Mixed Medias (Explanatory Sequential) ● Integration or combining of qualitative or quantitative designs ○ All methods have biases and weaknesses ○ Collecting both can help neutralize these ○ Triangulating data courses means to seek convergence of different methods ■ Check accuracy ■ One can help explain the other ■ One could lead to better instruments ■ One can build on the other ● Convergent parallel mixed methods: researcher converges or merges quantitative and qualitative to provide a comprehensive analysis. Contradictions and incongruencies must be explained. ● Explanatory sequential mixed methods: quantitative research, analyze results, then builds an explanation with detailed qualitative research.strong quantitative orientation. ● Exploratory sequential mixed methods: qualitative research, analyze results, then builds an explanation with detailed quantitative research. Strong qualitative orientation. ● Advanced Mixed Method Strategies: used concurrently or sequentially or both. ○ Transformative mixed methods: theoretical lense for social justice or power as an overarching perspective within a design ○ Embedded mixed method: quantitative or qualitative data is embedded within a larger design (experiment) and the data sources play a supporting role in the overall design. ○ Multiphase mixed methods: common in fields of evaluation and program interventions. ○ Research Methods ■ There is a full range of possibilities for data collection and to organize it Quantitative Methods Mixed Methods Qualitative Methods Predetermined Predetermined and Emerging methods emerging methods Instrument based Open and close ended Open ended question questions question Performance data, attitude Multiple forms of data Interview data, observation data, observational data, drawing on all possibilities data, document data, census data audiovisual data Statistical analysis Statistical and text analysis Text and image analysis Statistical interpretation Across databases Themes, patterns, interpretation interpretation ■ Questions ■ Data Collection ■ Data Analysis ■ Interpretation ■ Validation ● Research Approaches as Worldviews, Designs, and Methods ● Criteria for selecting a research approach ○ The Research Problem and Questions ■ Problems come from a void in literature, conflict in literature, neglect in literature, raising the voice of marginalized minorities, and reallife problems. ■ Different problems are solved best with different approaches. Chose each one securely. ○ Personal Experiences ■ Personal training and experiences influences how they choose an approach based on what the person is familiar with (numbers or words). ■ Time, resources, and flexibility also variables in choosing. ○ Audiences ■ Write for audiences that accept research. Article “Developing and Evaluating a Website to Guide Older Adults in Their Health Information Searches: A MixedMethods Approach” 1. Research Approach used: Mixed Method 2. Worldview: Pragmatism 3. Research Design: Exploratory Sequential 4. Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative
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