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Homework Notes, "Chapter 2 Notes"

by: Andrea Lloyd

Homework Notes, "Chapter 2 Notes" 308

Marketplace > Texas A&M University > COMM > 308 > Homework Notes Chapter 2 Notes
Andrea Lloyd
Texas A&M
GPA 3.2
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About this Document

This concerns research approaches and methods
Research Methods in Communications
Kylene Wesner
Class Notes




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Popular in COMM

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Lloyd on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 308 at Texas A&M University taught by Kylene Wesner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Communications in COMM at Texas A&M University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Research Design ­­ Chapter One, Creswell Notes The Selection of a Research Approach ● Research approaches are plans and the procedures for research that span the  steps from broad assumptions to detailed methods of data collection, analysis, and  interpretation ● Which approach should be used to study a topic ● Research designs: procedures of inquiry ● Research methods: data analysis, collection, and interpretation ● Research problem: issue being addressed ● Three Approaches to Research ○ Qualitative: Words, open ended questions, case studies,  observations ■ Exploring and understanding the meaning  individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem ■ Process: emerging questions and procedures, data  collection in participant’s setting, data analysis along themes, flexibly  structured final report ■ Inductive style, focus on individual meaning,  complexities of a situation ○ Quantitative: Numbers, closed ended questions, experiments,  theories ■ Examining the relationship among variables (which  can be measured on instruments) to find statistical results ■ Final report has a structure of introduction,  literature and theory, methods, results, and discussion. ■ Deductive style, build protection against bias,  controls for alternative explanations, and generalize and replicate findings ○ Mixed Methods: resides in the middle of Qualitative and  Quantitative approaches ■ Collecting and integrating from both types of data ■ Philosophical assumptions and theoretical  frameworks ■ Combination of research approaches provides a  more complete understanding of the research problem ● Three Components Involved in an Approach ○ Philosophical Worldviews:think of what the larger picture is of why  you chose the research question and your approach to research. Worldview: a  basic set of beliefs that guide an action (aka paradigms, epistemologies,  ontologies, or broadly conceived methodologies). Similar to a Bias. Postpositivism Constructionism ● Determination ● Understanding ● Reductionism ● Multiple participant meanings ● Empirical Observation and  ● Personal, Social, and  measurement Historical construction ● Theory verification ● Theory generation Transformative Pragmatism ● Political ● Consequences of actions ● Power and justice oriented ● Problem­centered ● Collaborative ● Pluralistic ● Change­oriented ● Real­world practice oriented ■ Postpositivism Worldview ● Aka scientific method, science  research, empirical science ● Challenges a knowledge of absolute  truth and claims when studying human behavior and actions ● Knowledge is conjectural and  antifoundational, absolute truth can never be found.  ● Evidence in research is always  imperfect and fallible. ● Do not prove hypotheses; indicate a  failure to reject a hypothesis. ● Make claims and refining or  abandoning them as other stronger claims come forward. Test of  a theory. ● Data, evidence, and rational shape  knowledge. Based on instruments, participants, or observations ● Develop relevant true statements  that serve to explain situations of concern or interest. Redefine  relationships of variables with new questions ● Objectivity. Examine methods and  conclusions for bias, validity, and reliability ■ Constructivist Worldview ● Social constructivists: believe  individuals seek understanding of the world in which they live and  work. They wish to develop subjective meaning from their  experiences ● An individual’s background shapes  interpretation ● Intent is to interpret of the meanings  others have in this world ● Construct meanings as they engage  the world they’re interpreting ● Open­ended Questions so  participants can share their views ● Humans interpret their world based  on their historical and social perspectives ● It’s all about the context and setting  that information is grown and gathered in ● Inquirer generates meaning from the data collected in the field ■ Transformative Worldview ● No uniformity of literature  characterizing this view ● Individuals who follow this position  feel the postpositivist assumptions imposed structural laws and  theories that did not fit marginalized individuals in our society or  issues of power and social justice, discrimination, and oppression  that needs to be addressed. ● Constructivist stance does not go far enough for advocating an action agenda for marginalized people  (minorities) ● Research inquiries must be  intertwined with social and political change to confront social  oppression and create reform ● Researchers often use a social issue for a focal point e.g. inequality, empowerment, oppression,  suppression, alienation ● Provides an united voice for these  marginalized minorities ■ Pragmatic Worldview ● Actions, situations, and  consequences rather than antecedent conditions ● Focus on application and solutions  instead of methods and questions ­­­ what and how ● Freedom to choose methods,  techniques, and procedures ● Use all available methods to collect  and analyze data ● Research always occurs in social,  historical, political, and other contexts ○ Designs: strategies of inquiry Quantitative Qualitative Mixed Methods ● Experimenta ● Narrative  ● Convergent l design research ● Explanatory  ● Nonexperim ● Phenomenol sequential ental designs, like  ogy ● Exploratory  surveys ● Grounded  sequential theory ● Transformati ● Ethnographi ve, embedded, or  es multiphase ● Case  Studies ■ Quantitative Designs ● Experimental: True experiments,  Quasi experiments, Applied behavioral analysis (or Single­subject  experiments), ○ Seeks to determine a  specific treatment’s potential to influence an outcome.  Compare and contrast two diffferent groups. ● Non­experimental: causal­ comparative research (compare in terms of a cause), correlational design (correlational statistics used to describe  association/relationships) ○ Surveys: numeric  description of trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population  by studying a sample. Uses questionnaires and structured  interviews for data collection as well. Intent of generalizing  information. ■ Qualitative (Ethnographies) ● Grounded theory: sociology design  which takes a general theory of a process or action grounded in  the views of participants. Stages of data collection and refinement  of information ● Ethnography: anthropology and  sociology design where shared patterns of behavior, language,  and actions of an intact cultural group in a natural setting over a  long period of time. Observation and interviews. ● Narrative research: researcher  studies the lives of individuals and ask for stories about their lives. Information is retold by the researcher in narrative chronology.  Combines views of participant with researcher for a collaborative  narrative ● Phenomenological research:  philosophy and psychology is used to describe the experiences of  an individuals about an phenomenon. Typically involves  conducting interviews. ● Case Studies: evaluation used for in  depth analysis of a case or event. Bounded by time and activity,  collect detailed information using a variety of data collection  procedures over a long period of time. ■ Mixed Medias (Explanatory Sequential) ● Integration or combining of  qualitative or quantitative designs ○ All methods have  biases and weaknesses ○ Collecting both can  help neutralize these ○ Triangulating data  courses means to seek convergence of different methods ■ Check  accuracy ■ One  can help explain the other ■ One  could lead to better instruments ■ One  can build on the other ● Convergent parallel mixed methods:  researcher converges or merges quantitative and qualitative to  provide a comprehensive analysis. Contradictions and  incongruencies must be explained.  ● Explanatory sequential mixed  methods: quantitative research, analyze results, then builds an  explanation with detailed qualitative research.strong quantitative  orientation. ● Exploratory sequential mixed  methods: qualitative research, analyze results, then builds an  explanation with detailed quantitative research. Strong qualitative  orientation. ● Advanced Mixed Method Strategies:  used concurrently or sequentially or both. ○ Transformative mixed methods: theoretical lense for social justice or power as an overarching perspective within a design ○ Embedded mixed  method: quantitative or qualitative data is embedded within a larger design (experiment) and the data sources play a  supporting role in the overall design. ○ Multiphase mixed  methods: common in fields of evaluation and program  interventions.  ○ Research Methods ■ There is a full range of possibilities for data  collection and to organize it Quantitative Methods Mixed Methods Qualitative Methods Predetermined Predetermined and  Emerging methods emerging methods Instrument based  Open and close ended  Open ended question questions question Performance data, attitude  Multiple forms of data  Interview data, observation data, observational data,  drawing on all possibilities data, document data,  census data audiovisual data Statistical analysis Statistical and text analysis Text and image analysis Statistical interpretation Across databases  Themes, patterns,  interpretation interpretation ■ Questions ■ Data Collection ■ Data Analysis ■ Interpretation ■ Validation ● Research Approaches as Worldviews, Designs, and Methods ● Criteria for selecting a research approach ○ The Research Problem and Questions ■ Problems come from a void in literature, conflict in  literature, neglect in literature, raising the voice of marginalized minorities, and real­life problems.  ■ Different problems are solved best with different  approaches. Chose each one securely. ○ Personal Experiences ■ Personal training and experiences influences how  they choose an approach based on what the person is familiar with  (numbers or words). ■ Time, resources, and flexibility also variables in  choosing.  ○ Audiences ■ Write for audiences that accept research.  Article “Developing and Evaluating a Website to Guide Older Adults in Their Health Information  Searches: A Mixed­Methods Approach” 1. Research Approach used: Mixed Method 2. Worldview: Pragmatism 3. Research Design: Exploratory Sequential  4. Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative


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