PLSC 101 Week 1
PLSC 101 Week 1 PLSC101010
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Menos on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PLSC101010 at University of Delaware taught by Bais,Harsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see Botany I in Plant Science at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Introduction 9/2/16 10:16 AM Botany • study of plants why study plants • they are our food source botanists can develop plants that • drought or stress tolerant • require less water/fertilizer • resistant to pathogens • more nutritious Botanical Disciplines • plant anatomy o internal structure • plant physiology o function • taxonomy o ID o naming o classification • geography o how and why plants are distributed • ecology o interactions with enviro o interactions with e.o. • morphology o form and external stricture plants • multicellular eukaryotes • diverse o flowering o seed o land o vascular • fix CO2 to E that animals use as food • autotrophic o make their own food o photosynthesis § convert CO2 into sugars • produce assortment of chemicals o vitamin A o defense chemicals § vanillin § vitamin C § caffeine § morphine plant cells features • totipotent o cells can develop into any other type of cell within body of plant • form a connected symplast o allows things to pass between membranes • cell wall basic cell • membrane • cytoplasm • organelles membranes • separate compartments • phospholipid layers • proteins o for transport of enzymes in signal transduction organelles • must be membrane bound • endomembrane system o nucleus § genetic code ú holds DNA o endoplasmic reticulum § synthesis of proteins in lipids § DNA-RNA ú transcription § RNA-protein ú translation § RER ú rough endoplasmic reticulum ú studded with ribosomes ú site of protein synthesis § Smooth ER ú no ribosomes o golgi apparatus § receives proteins/lipids from ER § vesicule fusion ú receiving end o vacuole § sturdiness § storage bins ú ions ú metabolites ú pigments ú toxins ú breakdown • other organelles o microbodies (oxysomes) § detoxification § break down fat o mitochondrion § E production through cell respiration § semi-automomous ú own DNA ú make part of own proteins o cholorplast § plastid § photosynthesis § CO2 + H2O = sugar + O2 § ATP production § store chlorophyll ú pigment that makes them look green § semi-automomous ú own DNA ú make part of own proteins § other plastids ú chromoplast ú amyloplast • colorless • roots other structures in eukaryotic cells • cytoskeleton o network of protein fibers throughout cell o support o movement o components § microtubules § microfilaments § intermediate • cell wall • plasmodesmata o contact point between cells o cytoplasmic connection o molecular transport o transduction • stomata o breathing pores monocots vs dicots • dicots have vasculatures that are radially arranged • monocots have vasculatures are scattered Chapter 2 9/2/16 10:16 AM Things to cover in class 1. different organic components found in plants and functions 2. what are components made of 3. what are polysaccharides and how do you differentiate them functionally 4. what are enzymes 5. what are primary and secondary metabolites Last class… a. prokaryotes vs eukaryotes b. plant cell properties (totipotent) c. plants are autotrophic d. endomembrane complex e. monocots vs dicots Vasculature in plants • xylem o translocate water and nutrient from soil to different parts of plant body • phloem o translocate sugar from mature to younger plants Cell walls • 3 main functions 1. regulates cell volume 2. determines cell shape 3. protects protoplast o cell minus a cell wall • other features o determine mechanical strength o “glue” plants together o control turgor pressure o allow bulk water flow in xylem o act as diffusion barrier for macromolecules • cell wall components o cellulose – 25% o pectins – 35% o hemicelluloses – 25% o structural proteins – 2-5% • sugars o mono-sacaride § one unit § glucose o di-sacaride § two units § sucrose o poly-sacaride § multiple units § starch • are NOT inert – walls interact with surface proteins and can modify physical properties of wall o Ex § fruit ripening – enzymes meditate hydrolysis and degradation of hemicelluloses and pectins • plant cell walls have PECTIN • fungal cell walls have CHITIN enzymes • proteins that speed up any kind of biological reactions • biological catalysts • specific • they accelerate one particular rection • like a lock and key; the Key (active site/enzyme) only fits into one lock or (reaction/substrate) • always end in –ase • pathway o series of enzymes that work together • feed-back inhibition o an enzyme is inhibited by its product • enzymatic reactions rate is influenced by o enzyme convcentration o substrate concentration o environmental conditions § temp § pH § each enzyme has a pH optimum and temp optimum o acitcation/inhibition § cofactors ú activates § inhibitors ú inhibits enzymatic reaction using competitive enzyme ú competitive • binds to active site ú non-competitive • binds to substrate § activators § phosphorylation ú add phosphate group ú ATP § dephosporylation ú take away phosphate group ú ADP plant metabolism and plant defense • metabolism o sum aof all reactions in organism • anabolic o reactions: smaller – bigger • catabolic o reactions bigger – smaller • primary metabolism o reactions of vital importance for plant survival and reproduction • secondary metabolism o not of vital importance but roles in plant ecology • secondary • secondary metabolites o flavonoids § water-solubule § stored in vacuole § attract pollinators, protection against excessive light, defense, allelopathy § uses: dyes, food coloring, pH indicators, anti-cancer drugs o alkaloids § protection against herbivores § uses: drugs, medicines, pesticides, poison, pain killers o terpenoids § waxes in cuticle § some essential oils § latex § saponins (soapy) § cyanog x xxx cxxx ccxxenic and cardiac toxins § function: protection from herbivores 9/2/16 10:16 AM
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