Drug Identification Week 2
Drug Identification Week 2 FSC 440
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsey Smith on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSC 440 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Nesser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Drug Identification in Forensic Science at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
FSC 440 Drug Identification August 29, 2016 Schedule I Emergency/ Temporary Scheduling Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 ◦ Places substances on a temporary basis by administrator of DEA ◦ Mainly emergency scheduling is a schedule I which will keep its status until there is evidence to move it or keep it on the list Analogs ◦ Analogs can be placed on schedules because they resemble a control drug Antidrug Abuse Act 1986 ◦ Substitute for actual listed controlled substance mimics the effects and works similarly to the control ◦ Analogs have no medical use ◦ Analogs can be made by accident by careless drug chemists ◦ Pharmacologically similar to schedule I drug ◦ The same laws apply to analogs as they do to scheduled drugs Terminology ◦ Addict any individual who habitually uses controlled substances ◦ Administrator how the controlled substance is introduced to body by medical professional or abuser can be done through injection, inhalation, or ingestion ◦ Agent manufacturer/ distributer of controlled substance illegal or legal agent dependent on drug type ◦ DEA drug enforcement administration over scheduling of drugs and investigations of newly scheduled drugs ◦ Control act of adding a precursor/ drug in a schedule ◦ Control Substance any drug or immediate precursor that is listed in schedule IV does not include distilled spirits or tobacco ◦ Counterfeit Substance anything packaged, labeled, or sold under the pretense that it is the real thing ◦ Deliver transfer of control substance ◦ Depressant controlled substance that once ingested will diminish normal bodily functions suppresses breathing and normal body reactions ◦ Dispense amount and route that drug is given between distributer and user ◦ Stimulant controlled substance that will increase normal body functions such as heart and respiratory rate Drug Identification Bible lists all currently continue controlled and many illicit drugs Reading a Pill ◦ Markings help identify what drug/ manufacturer it is ◦ CIIV ◦ Most have imprints will tell you drug brand/ generic ◦ Other side of tablet will give manufacturer/ distributor’s name ◦ If drug is generic bible will have brand or equivalent ◦ Will list most common use ◦ Manufacturer most drugs are not specific to a certain company which allows for generic production the same chemical makeup is used with the same active ingredients but up to 15% of a difference in the salt is allowed GHB Gammahydroxybutylrate ◦ Schedule I ◦ Common street names liquid ecstasy, GBH ◦ Listed as a depressant ◦ Usually distributed by teaspoon or capful ◦ Price is generally $510 per dose depending on purity ◦ Average dose is 15 grams ◦ Effects can take place as soon as 1530 minutes after ingestiondepending on purity History of GHB ◦ Substance does occur naturally in the human body ◦ Metabolite and precursor to GABA ◦ Essential for bran function and nervous system health ◦ 1960’s Dr. HenryMarie Laborit created GHB as an anesthetic for childbirth pain and sleep disorders ◦ Still used for some things in US distributed by trained medical professionals ◦ Became illicitly popular in bodybuilding community it was believed that it would boost muscle mass ◦ In the 80’s GHB was sold OTC (over the counter) as a supplement/ sleep aid ◦ Increase of abuse through 8090’s forced the FDA/ DEA into action and on Nov 1990 GHB became listed as an inappropriate drug and could not be sold OTC ◦ In March 2000 the DEA listed GHB as a schedule I drug ◦ Became a popular rave drug due to euphoric effect ◦ Many deaths and medical emergencies were mainly due to dehydration in intense environments while on the drug ◦ Became a popular date rape drug because it causes severe sedation and amnesic effects ◦ Liquid is added to drink with almost no taste (salty) and quick effects deep calm almost sleep state, feel severely intoxicated ◦ It’s difficult to calculate number for GHB related rape cases ◦ There are test available to check for GHB in blood (6 hours) and urine (12 hours) individual is incapacitated during most of the time so it is too late to do any testing ◦ Often individual wakes up more alert and won’t feel the after effects of the crime committed they may how to think hard to realize what has happened Sources ◦ Naturally present in human body GHB is synthesized from GABA and GBL ◦ GHB was removed from the market for medical use buy was still available in industrial settings ◦ 1999 a warning about GHB products was listed and all merchandise containing the drug was removed from shelves GBL used in many labs or pharmaceutical production ◦ Once GBL is ingested it is rapidly broken down into GHB ◦ In clandestine laboratories GBL is used in an intermediary step during the production of GHB ◦ 2001 DEA issued no tolerance for GHB ◦ Both GHV and GVL are analogs of GHB and the individual will experience similar effects ◦ GHV is only half as strong as GHB ◦ GHV is still primarily used in food and tobacco industries o Quickly absorbed into body and distributed the initial effects can start in 5 minutes max effects are felt within 2030 minutes o Mainly comes in liquid form but a powder can also be found o Salty flavor o Distributed in sports bottles, eye drop bottles concealable and easy to use o In rave settings it can start at $20 per dose Effects of GHB ◦ Almost every organ system is affected ◦ Severely suppress respiratory and heart rate ◦ Temperature regulation is off individuals experience intense hot feelings ◦ Sugar metabolism and blood flow is effected ◦ Memory and emotional control ◦ Can lead to physical dependence over time ◦ Low doses induce state of relaxation and tranquility ◦ High doses lead to dizziness, comma, and possibly death ◦ Pharmacological and toxicological effects of GHB and analogs is similar ◦ When combined with other depressants, alcohol the effects will be magnified and increase the likeliness of death Dosage ◦ 1 gram alcohol like effects feeling of relaxation ◦ 12 grams reduced inhibitions, intense enjoyment of music, strong feelings of euphoria ◦ 24 grams affect individual’s ability to speak and motor coordination ◦ 4< grams agitated state severe respiratory depression vomiting loss of consciousness ◦ Purity of drug is hard to control ◦ Illicit distribution is dangerous because it is generally made by someone who does not know what they’re doing and does not have real chemistry skills leads to possibility of residual or precursor drugs remaining in product that have not fully reacted ◦ Withdrawal is eminent set in 16 hours after last dose and can last up to 2 weeks ◦ Withdrawal symptoms include: increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, long term nausea, long term seizures ◦ Addiction is hard to stop as addicting as cocaine or heroin ◦ FSC 440 Drug Identification August 31, 2016 Heroin CSA Schedule 1 Active substance: diacetylmorphine Street names: dope Category: Narcotic analgesics derivatives are used in surgery Street Prices: $520 a dose ◦ Not as popular as it once was but there has been a constant usage of the drug since 2002 ◦ 23% of first time users will develop a dependence to the drug ◦ Heroin is one of the most addictive of illicit drugs 16% of users develop a dependence ◦ The purity rate has gone up due to more efficient lab techniques ◦ Heroin is usually snorted, injected, or smoked ◦ Users generally go 1113 years before seeking addiction help Chance of Disease ◦ The biggest cause of serious injury or death is contracting commutable diseases such as AIDS/ HIV by sharing needles or drug apparatuses ◦ Users also run a greater chance of contracting Hepatitis C ◦ Recovering addicts faces a lifetime of poor health and heavy medication ◦ The users that do contract Hep C could have it for 20 or more years before effects are noticed (the breakdown of the liver) due to the drugs covering the symptoms ◦ Heroin users who inject have a 20 times greater risk of dying than the general public Source ◦ Heroin is a product of the opium plant and is semisynthetic Opiates are natural or semisynthetic Opioids are synthetic opiates that are not natural and are structurally similar to the natural drug ◦ Heroin is produced by treating morphine with aceticanahydride ◦ Morphine is the most abundant alkaloid found in the plant ◦ Opioids and opiates are not taken from the plant but both are classified as narcotics ◦ The white, milky sap from the flower contains the majority of the drug History ◦ Opium was first used 9,000 years ago by the Assyrians for medicinal purposes to block pain and keep individual aware ◦ In 4,000 BC there are accounts of Assyrians growing the opium poppy plan in present day Iraq ◦ Greeks around 1,000 AD used this plant for its sedative effects and sense of relaxation it gave to the user th ◦ Popularity in usage spread throughout Africa & Europe and ended up in China in the 10 Century ◦ 1803 German scientist isolated main active substance “morphium” named after the Greek god Morpheus god of dreams o Discovered that morphine is 10 times more potent than the sap of the poppy plant o Many formulations of morphine and opium were produced to treat dysenteries and cholera miracle drug of 18 and 19 century o Also used to suppress cough in syrups of tuberculosis patients o Laudanum is a mix of opium and spices dissolved into wine to mask the bitter taste of the drug was available until 1906 when FDA outlawed it ◦ Opium based drugs were introduced to the US when Chinese immigrant laborers brought them across the sea ◦ Was originally allowed in the smoking form ◦ 18611865 Civil War was the drug of choice to wounded soldiers on the battlefield o Lead to an increase in addiction ◦ 1874 heroin was synthesized from morphine by English chemist Alder Wright o This allowed ingredient to be placed in tonics and health remedies o Allowed for the injection of heroin which became a turning point for use and distribution o Injection allowed for the fastest effects and gave a greater and more pleasurable effect Laws Dealing with Heroin in the US ◦ 1906 The Pure Food and Drug Act ended OTC (over the counter) sale of heroin and other opiates ◦ 1914 The Harrison Narcotics Act regulated the manufacturing and distribution of heroin ◦ 1922 Medical doctors could no longer prescribe the drug to known addicts ◦ 1942 The cultivation of the opium poppy plant was outlawed in the US ◦ 1956 Heroin was outlawed and all remaining products of the drug were surrendered to the government ◦ 1972 law passed that permitted the distribution of methadones to treat addiction ◦ Today heroin is still used in some medical procedures it is still legal in some European countries vending machines that replaces used needles for clean ones have popped up to prevent disease there are 65 injecting centers in Europe who will safely and cleanly administer the drug Supply Sources ◦ The opium poppy plant can grow up to 5ft in height and have colors ranging from white to purple with all variations in between ◦ Opium is the source for all opiate drugs: heroin, codeine, morphine Distribution ◦ India is the sole supply source of raw opium into the world market ◦ Poppies can be legally grown in Australia and seeds harvested for medical use ◦ Most of Heroin is smuggled into the US via air freight, international mail, ocean freight, and marine vessels o Some nonconventional means of moving the drug are: heroin saturation (soak garment in drug that is dried and sent to buyer), printer ink cartridges, stuffed animals, soles of shoes, animal smuggling Cuts ◦ Problems with heroin use are mainly with what the drug is diluted or cut with o Often cut with: lidocaine, caffeine, lactose, acetaminophen o Common cuts include: quinine, starch, powdered milk, powdered vitamins, sugars ◦ The brown or tan heroin is cut with coffee or cocoa mix ◦ The most frequently encountered nonpure heroin is a combination of heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamines ◦ Of the powder form, the colors range from white to dark brown depending on production methods ◦ Tar heroin colors vary from brown to black left over heroin and is very toxic ◦ Large amounts of heroin are packaged into kilo bricks ◦ The product is often carried in small balloons in the mouth Ingestion ◦ Preparation: generally, it is mixed with water and then heated to fully dissolve the heroin which provides for an easier injection substance it is pumped into the vein in small amounts over short periods of time ◦ Uses: o Intravenous (inject into vein) users feel the effects within 78 seconds and the rush lasts up to 5 minutes o Intramuscular (inject into muscle) users feel the effects within 510 minutes but is more dangerous than IV because there is an increased risk of damage to the body’s soft tissues around injection sites which can form abscesses in the body greatest risk is sepsis (infection) setting into the lining of the heart o “Chasing the Dragon” a method of ingestion where the user heats up the drug on aluminum foil and inhales the vapors is not as effective as other means because the drug is lost in the open air around it ◦ Second drug ingestion occurs when users take secondary drugs to decrease the negative effects of injecting Heroin (such as marijuana to counteract nausea) Effects of Ingestion: ◦ Generally, the effects will last about 46 hours ◦ long term users face many health problems to achieve the feeling of relaxation and wellbeing, the user must increase the dosage to reach high there is an increased risk of overdose and long term medical issues due to this Withdrawal ◦ Symptoms will appear within 612 hours of last dose ◦ The symptoms are dependent on the length of time user took the drug and can be related to a bad case of the flu ◦ Sudden withdrawal can be fatal especially for users with poor health ◦ Symptoms will peak within 2472 hours after the final dose ◦ Withdrawal symptoms taper off after 710 days ◦ Heroin users have a high relapse rate but if they can make it past the first 72 hours there is a better percentage rehabilitation for abusers Treatment Programs ◦ These facilities treat Heroin users with other drugs to wean them off ◦ Detox facilities use a combination of naltrexone and clonidine o Both drugs bind to opium receptors in the body and help shorten withdrawal symptoms from 710 days to 23 days ◦ Methadone is the most widely accepted treatment for Heroin addicts o It is structurally similar to heroin and prevents withdrawal symptoms because it fulfills the physical needs for heroin and at large doses it will block pleasurable effects of heroin o It is dispensed orally and can last up to 24 hours this can be dispensed in an outpatient setting ◦ Buprenorphine synthetic opiate substitute used to treat heroin addiction o This is available through prescription as Suboxone films and in tablet forms o A managed care doctor will take on 30 patients per cycle there is a push for the change in that rule to increase patients seen per cycle to 100 to help speed up process Pharmacology ◦ Heroin itself has no effect on the body ◦ It is an active precursor or prodrug which quickly delivers morphine to the system because it easily passes through the bloodbrain barrier due to structure ◦ Heroin is a vessel that will then metabolize back into morphine upon reaching its destination morphine cannot efficiently cross the bloodbrain barrier ◦ There is a large concentration of morphine deposited by heroin
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