Week 4 Notes
Popular in Cultural Aspects of FDNS
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNDS 4630 at University of Georgia taught by Hea Park in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Notes f or FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 4 8/29 -9/2 ) Monday: Will the US population continue to increase in obesity or will it ever decrease? It’s expected to increase until 2030 2 lines on the graph: one based on the historic trend, and one on the recent trend Recently, women have been trying to lose and maintain weight more than men do. So obesity will still be increasing, but at a slower rate JAMA journal did another study. Change in obese population based on age groups from 2003-2012. The increase or decrease in P value determines the significance. People over 60 years old are expected to increase 4.4% and it’s significant. This is important because this is directly related to the cost of health care (the elderly develop chronic diseases) 2-5 year olds are expected to have a 5.5% decrease with a P value of .03 (significant) This might be because adults now how dangerous obesity is so they try to feed their children well. Childhood obesity predicts adult obesity “Prevalence of Childhood and Adult Obesity in the United States” Intercultural Nutrition Assessment • Standardized tools may be biased • Health attitude models, acculturation scales, and indexes also unsuited • Anthropometric measurement tools may be inappropriate • Development of culturally specific techniques and tools is a critical need in a nutrition assessment • Use 24 hr recall in an open-ended manner Nutrition Assessment- respondent-driven interview • Can what you eat help cure your sickness or make it worse • Do you eat certain foods to keep healthy? To make you strong? • Do you avoid certain foods to prevent sickness? • Do you balance eating some foods with other foods? • Are there foods you will not eat? Why? Successful Diet Counseling • Dependent on culturally sensitive communication strategies • Cross cultural counseling through four steps 1) Must become familiar with your own cultural heritage 2) Must become acquainted with the cultural background of each client 3) Through an in-depth cross cultural interview, they must establish the client’s cultural background, food habit adaptations made in the US and personal preferences 4) Must modify diets based on unbiased analysis of the dietary data. The best chance for compliance occurs when diets are modified with consideration for client’s cultural and personal preferences There are food guide pyramids for all different cultures (Native Americans, Mexicans, Chinese, Indian, etc) For people who live in the states with different cultural backgrounds. Each country has their own “food pyramid” or their own public education tool Food and Religion Many factors affect food ways and food behavior. We will focus on religion and then region. Religions…provide networks for social and emotional support Religion is a culture Remember: • Evolved within existing culture • Often have health and dietary rules • Associated with overall health status Impact of religion varies with individuals: Related to: • How religious one is • Religious attendance (group participation) Common health and Dietary rules • Food prescription/avoidance • Fasting..why? -Gain spiritual merit -Increased introspection -Historical or sorrowful event -Closeness to God • Forms of fasting -Total avoidance of food and drink -Avoidance of certain dietary items -Usually short term Major Religions of the World Western • Judaism • Christianity • Islam • Originated in the Middle East • Teach concept of one God Christianity- Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodoxy, Protestantism (Mormons, Seventh Day Adventists) Eastern • Hinduism • Buddhism • Developed in India • Principle goal is liberation of the soul from the bondage of the body Self-Described Religious Affiliation in the US by Percentage (in 2008) Protestant, 54% Catholic, 25% No Religion, 16.8% Jewish, 1.7% Muslim, 0.6% Comparing 2007 and 2014: Christianity decreased. Non-Christian faiths increased. Unaffiliated increased the most (16% to 23%) Christianity fell from 78.4% to 70.6% Religion is a culture Practices • Vary widely • Have been used for thousands of years and have been reinvented over time • Most have areas of questionable guidelines Wednes day: JUDAISM Two major Jewish traditions in US: Ashkenazi- Germany, N. France, E. Europe. Most common in US Sephardi- Originally Spain, Muslim countries, or once Muslim countries In US, 90% of Jews are Eastern European in origin, so Ashkenazi dominates. 43% live in New England and about 20% are in the south Three major branches of Judaism: Orthodox Judaism: most likely to follow Kashrut Conservative Judaism Reform Judaism- most likely to not follow Kashrut 25-30% of Jewish Americans practice Kashrut (depends on which branch you are involved in) Kashrut: Set down in Torah ‘Kosher’ means ‘fit’ ‘Kosher’: permitted food items For spiritual health, not physical health Biblical references serve as basis of Kashrut Which animals, fish and fowel may be regarded as Kosher For the life of the flesh is in the blood Thou shalt not cook a kid in its mother’s milk So you shall sat apart clean beast from the unclean.. you shall be holy to me, for I the Lord am holy Generally, foods are classified into two categories • Kosher: means Jewish dietary laws • Trief: forbidden Within Kosher, foods are.. • Meat • Dairy • Pareve: eggs, fruits, vegetables, and grains (neutral) Which animals are permitted for food and which are not: • All mammals with a completely cloven food and chews the cut may be eaten and their milk may be consumed -Clean animals include cattle, deer, goats, oxen, and sheep -Unclean animals include swine, rabbits, and carnivorous animals • Clean birds must have a crop, gizzard, and extra talon and their eggs may be consumed -Ex. Chicken, ducks, geese, turkeys -All birds of prey are unclean • Fish: everything with fins and scales is clean Everything else is unclean Unclean includes catfish, eels, rays, sharks, and all shellfish • All reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates are also unclean Method of slaughtering animals • Life must be taken by a ritualistic process called shehitah (shechitah) • A shohet is trained and licensed to perform the killing -Slits jugular and trachea -Blood is all drained • No Natural death, road kill, or killed by any other method allowed Part of a permitted animal that is forbidden Blood • Blood from any animal is strictly forbidden • An egg with a small bloodspot in the yolk must be discarded Fat • Fat around vital organs is permitted (heleb) • Other fat is okay Preperation of the meat • Remove heleb, blood, blood vessels, and scietic nerve • Koshering -Soak meat in water -Drain -Cover with kosher salt to draw out blood -Rinse out salt -Rinse repeatedly The law of meat and milk • Meat and milk cannot be eaten together -Eating meat: six hours before eating dairy -Dairy products: one hour before meat The period between is a matter of custom, not law • Mixing meat and dairy shows insensitivity to life -Milk: birth Meat: decay and death • Separate sets of dishes, pots, utensils, linens, sinks, etc. for meat and dairy • Pareve: Neutral- eggs, fruits, vegetables, and grains They can be eaten with both Products of forbidden animals • Products of unclean animals are forbidden -Eggs of non-kosher birds: no • Exception: Honey is fine, bees aren’t -Assumed to not contain any insect parts • Where does gelatin come from? Pig parts OU is the mark of the most strictly regulated kosher certifiers Religious Holidays Sabbath: Day of rest • Friday night till after nightfall Saturday • A day devoted to prayer and rest, no work is allowed -Challah (hallah, a braided bread) -Cholent: a bean and potato dish -Kugel: a pudding, side dish Rosh Hashanah Jewish New Year (September or October) The beginning of a ten-day period of penitence that ends with the Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur • Round challah -Life without end -Uninterrupted year of health and happiness • No sour or bitter foods -Apples in honey -Special sweets and delicacies (honey cake, etc) Yom Kippur Day of Atonement • Holiest day of the year -10 days after Rosh Hashanah -Usually in September or October • Complete fast day -No food or water allowed -Exception: boys under 13, girls under 12, people who are sick, women in childbirth • Meal before fast is bland to prevent thirst • Meal to break fast is light Fri day: Sukkot: Feast of Tabernacles • Festival of thanksgiving in Fall • Dancing, singing, feasting • Sukkah (hut) built and meals are eaten there Hanukkah: the Festival of Lights • Commemorates the recapture of the Temple in Jerusalem in 169 C.E. • 8 nights in December • Candle lit each night • Foods cooked in oil -Latke: potato pancakes Purim: Joyous celebration in February or March • Feast in honor of deliverance by Queen Esther • Lots of meat and alcohol • Symbolic foods -Hamantaschen: triangular-shaped pastry filled with jams -Kreplach: a pastry stuffed with meat or cheese -Purim challah: sweet bread with raisins -Special fish dish -Seeds, beans, and cereals Passover • 8 day festival of spring and freedom • in March or April • Celebrates the Jewish exodus form slavery in Egypt and their freedom as a nation under the leadership of Moses • Passover Seder: a ceremony carried out at home • All foods must be “Kosher for Passover” • Includes chicken soup, matzah balls, meat, or chicken • During Passover, no food that is subject to a leavening process or that has come in contact with leavened foods eaten • Matzah: a white flour cracker -A descendent of the unleavened bread Shavuoth • Season of giving of the Torah • Two-day festival • 7 weeks after the second day of Passover • Commemorates the rev • Traditional Ashkenazi food -Blintzes: thin pancakes rolled with a meat or cheese filling, and then topped with sour cream -Kreplach -Knishes: dough filled with a potato, meat, cheese, or fruit mixture, then baked Fast Days • Several other than Yom Kippur • Most Jews usually fast on Yom Kippur but other fast days are observed by only Orthodox Jews • Fasts can be broken by women who are pregnant or nursing or if it’s dangerous to a person’s health Kosher food is holy food, not necessarily healthy food Nutritional Status • Many are lactose intolerant -60-80% of Ashkenazi Jewish people are lactose intolerant • Research has identified a genetic predisposition to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Ashkenazi Jews • Tend to consume more fat from animal sources although calorie intake slightly lower than that for non-Jewish control -Higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia -Higher prevalence of Coronary heart disease -Can’t rule out genetics as a contributer Christianity Around the world, more people follow Christianity than any other single religion Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant Roman Catholicism • 25% of US population • Immigrated from Germany, Poland, Italy, Ireland (1800s), Mexico and the Caribbean (20 and 21 century) • French Catholics in Main and Louisiana • Most Filipinos and some Vietnamese in the US are Catholic Catholic Dietary Guidelines Abstinance- no meat but.. eggs, milk products, fish, condiments made of animal fat okay Applies to Catholics over 14 yes old and under 60 years old Fasting -Fasting practices vary locally -Eat only one full meal (1 mid-day meal or no mid-day meal but light morning and evening meals) -Beverages are allowed (not allowed: honey, milk, soup, broth, or anything else having the nature of food) Applies to Catholics over 18 yrs old but under 60 Current US Catholic Dietary Guidelines Papenitemini (1966 by Pope Paul VI) -Pope Paul VI changed the strictly regulated Catholic fasting requirements Ash Wednesday to the day before Easter (about 6 weeks) Only restrictions are: • Abstain from meat on Fridays during Lent • Fast and Abstain on: Ash Wednesday and Good Friday • Avoid food and liquids for 1 hour prior to communion -exception: water Good Friday: commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary US Catholic Dietary Guidelines before 1966 Abstinence on every Friday that did not fall on a holy day of obligation 6 Holy Days of Obligation in US 1) New Year’s Day 2) Ascension Day (40 days after Easter) 3) Assumption 4) All Saint’s Day 5) Immaculate Conception 6) Christmas Fasting and abstinence -Ash Wednesday -Good Friday Feast Days All celebrates: Christmas, Easter Most Devout celebrate: Annunciation, Palm Sunday, Pentecost Holiday food depends on country or origin
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