Clinical Psychology Week 1 Notes
Clinical Psychology Week 1 Notes PSH 336
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlin Cornell on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSH 336 at SUNY College at Brockport taught by Dr. Gillespie in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Clinical Psychology in Psychology at SUNY College at Brockport.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY WEEK 1 Clinical Psychology Notes from 8.31.2016 1. Defining and describing the roles of clinical psychologists 2. Clinical Psychology, defined by: a. A focus on human behavior b. An emphasis on conducting research (with humans) c. A belief in the need for assessment before treatment begins d. An emphasis on intervention to help (not merely observe, as in other psychology subdisciplines) 3. Intervention vs. Observation and Description a. Two types of approaches i. Nomothetic – literally translated from Latin root means, “to name”, as in group observations ii. Idiographic – to take an individualized approach; implies, for example, a case study 4. Definition of nomothetic approach a. Taken from Dr. Ray Corsini’s Dictionary of psychology: i. Nomothetic – pertaining to the formulation of general laws as the goal of scientific method, as opposed to the study of the individual case ii. Nomothetic research – research that attempts to discover general laws by comparing many individuals. Compare with idiographic research 5. Definition of an Idiographic approach a. Idiographic – pertaining to an individual or individual case. Refers to assessment procedures, observed relationships and results that are not necessarily generalizable across persons or groups b. Idiographic approach – the study of individuality, the uniqueness of an individual’s behavior and adjustment, as contrasted with the study of the universal, or nomothetic, aspects of experience or behavior 6. Another example: a. Idiographic psychology i. Definition from JM Cattell – the study of a single person as undertaken by a diagnostician or a psychotherapist concentrating on a particular client. Contrasted with nomothetic psychology wherein we look for principles that apply to people in general or to groups of people, such as newborns. 7. Activities of Clinical Psychologists a. Administration b. Assessment (psychological, forensic) c. Consultation d. Instruction (teaching, including mentoring, “supervision”) e. Treatment (intervention) f. Research (empirical) 8. Examples of administration activities a. In a clinic or hospital settings, could be directing the work of others who work for you b. In “academia” (university setting) being director of a departmental psychology clinic c. Or, directing the graduate program in clinical psychology in one’s department (master’s level or doctoral level) d. Being a project director for a grant that funds a research project – supervising those who work on the research project e. Administration in the “real world” of mental health (for example, at a community mental health center (CMHC)) also involves sophisticated duties such as quality assurance, public relations, hiring and firing 9. Assessment a. We will spend an entire unit on this; essential points to note b. this is most unique to psychologists; it is not done to a similar extent by any other mental health professionals c. Usually referred to more simply as psychological testing, but assessment actually also includes interview and observation 10.Consultation a. Major work here is advisement of others, but in service settings b. Occasionally involves direct service provision c. Many dimensions to attend to, e.g. locus of responsibility, functions, goals d. Requires especially sensitive “people” skills – be aware of mistrust, resentment, “outsider status” e. Consider these statements by a clinical psychology consultant – Dr. Joe Durlak, asked to develop a program in Illinois schools. It is part of his introductory statement to teachers whose pupils would be selected for the new program: “we operate according to the following assumptions: 1. We are not educators. Our purpose is not to tell you how to teach or to evaluate your teaching. 2. Teachers are good people. Their jobs are demanding and they deserve a lot of support. 3. Psychologists are good people also and they receive satisfaction from helping others. 4. There are practical limitations to what a teacher can do in a classroom situation. 5. There is no standard, ritualistic way to use behavioral techniques. Techniques have to be modified to suit individual teaching styles, individual children, and the organization and atmosphere of the classroom. Flexibility is the keyword. 6. Finally, behavioral principles are not a panacea for dealing with children. Our hope is to provide you, the teacher, with some skills you might find helpful in dealing with some of the problems and some of the demands of trying to do the best you can when dealing with 15-25 different young personalities each year. You are the expert on your children; we’re working together!” 11.Teaching a. Possibilities include “basic science” in psychology (personality, cognition, developmental) b. Applied areas (abnormal) or also experiential and graduate supervision of trainees (“case” supervision – advising a psychologist in training with their cases/clients) c. “Continuing education” which is usually thought of as the provision of “in=services”, brief talks or training to colleagues and staff d. Mentoring also qualifies here at Brockport we have a history of mentoring in psychology (McNair) e. Independent study teaching Clinical Psychology 9.2.2016 1. Intervention a. Remember synonyms: therapy, psychotherapy, intervention, treatment b. Exclusive domain of private practitioners? No, all clinical psychologists trained to provide treatment; private practitioners are most likely to be full-time therapists c. Assessment must remain a part of therapy in some form d. Controlling / eliminating symptoms is the main goal 2. Research a. May take many forms, but even in applied (clinical) psychology, empirical research is most valued b. In other words, collecting data to prove / disprove a theory with evidence (data) c. Comparative research in some form is also most common: i. This could mean a comparison of certain clinical groups or populations on some characteristic(s), or a comparison of treatment methods / types. d. Research at its best also means publishing one’s work i. Note titles from behavior therapy history, in “APA Style” references from journal articles: 1. Emmelkamp, P.M.G., Brilman, E., Kuiper, H., & Mersch, P. (1986). The treatment of agoraphobia: A comparison of self-instructional training, rational emotive therapy, and exposure in vivo. Behavior Modification, 10, 37-53. 2. Alford, B.A. (1986). Behavioral treatment of schizophrenic delusions: A single-case experimental analysis. Behavior Therapy, 17, 637-644. e. Steps in the research process i. Step 1 is usually the formulation of the “research question” (hypothesis) – which again, may be an attempt to test a theory 1. Can begin with just “unanswered questions” 2. Will be followed by development of the method of the study, identifying participants, surveys or questionnaires to administer, and procedure to be followed. 3. Once your research question and method is fully formed, the next step is: Ethics Committee Approval ii. Step 2: IRB (ethics) approval 1. Institutional review board (or ethics committees. Human subjects’ committees) 2. Activities outline by federal government 3. Most important purpose is to guarantee the rights of human participants in experiments 4. “Basic rights” implies several things a. Opportunity for fully informed consent before participation (including knowledge of risks and benefits) b. The right to withdraw from the research without any penalty c. The avoidance of use of unfair or exorbitant incentives for participation 5. Why do we need IRBs? a. Ethics boards scrutinize all proposed faculty research to ensure freedom from hard! Tragic mistakes DO occur: i. June, 2001 – Baltimore, MD: A volunteer died while participating in a Johns Hopkins University study in which participants inhaled a blood pressure medication as part of a study of asthma b. Another rare but tragic outcome: i. April, 1996: Rochester, NY: A volunteer (a 19- year old sophomore) died while participating in a University of Rochester Medical Center Study in which participants were administered bronchoscopies as part of an experiment on lung function (payment offered was $150) iii. Step 3: Recruiting Participants 1. True enough: in the history of even clinical psychology, most participants in research are college students 2. But recruitment from community populations, schools, hospitals, psychiatric families also necessary 3. Marketing efforts are needed to publicize a study iv. Step 4: Training research assistants 1. Many are college educated (i.e., you!); bachelor’s degree knowledge considered essential for precise measurements needed 2. All research assistants must be trained uniformly, i.e., with identical procedures 3. Creating a “KSA” checklist can be useful (knowledge, skills, abilities) v. Here’s a 26 – step KSA for one MA Student’s thesis. The Research Assistant: 1. Introduces self and brings participant to the research room. 2. Gives the “explanation statement” about doing many different things today. 3. Asks participant to have a seat and sits beside the desk. 4. Explains to participant that we will be looking at his/her performance on many different five minute tasks. 5. Goes over consent form with participant and has him or her sign. 6. Allows participant to ask questions. 7. Puts first checklist on desk and reads instructions to the participant verbatim. 8. Waits for subject to finish and collects it back. 9. Gives the introduction for Math Set 1 verbatim. 10.Asks participant if he or she has any questions. 11.Begins five minute timer when participant begins work on first addition problems (if necessary, emphasize to do problems correctly). 12.Moves to computer desk chair. 13.Stops timing when participant finishes the problems (or, at end of five minutes). 14.Reads manipulation instructions regarding speech or reads control script. 15.Fields any questions with “its part of the experiment.” 16.Fields any questions about videotaping. 17.Hands out second math problems. 18.“Set ups” video camera. (plug in camera tighten tripod put in videotape test look through viewfinder hit pause sit down) 19.Collects second math problems. 20.Administers questionnaire to assess stress during math task. 21.Gives information that the experiment is over. 22.Administers Participant Reaction Page and writes what participant says verbatim. 23.Answers any questions and does debriefing. 24.Introduces relaxation task. 25.Asks participant to let her or him know when they are ready to leave. 26.Announces “confidentiality request.” vi. Step 5: Collecting data 1. Data collection must also be standardized and uniform, accomplishing study procedures identically every time one participant is “run” 2. Data must be recorded carefully, stored in locked and secured facilities 3. Labs in Department of Psychology hold data for future publication vii. Step 6: scoring and analyzing data 1. Scoring now usually accomplished with computer programs, sometimes still hand scored 2. Statistical analysis is done via computer, software designed to perform correlations, analysis of variance, regression 3. “SPSS”: statistical package for the social sciences is commonly used viii. Step 7: writing scholarly manuscripts explaining findings in APA writing style ix. Step 8: submitting manuscript for publication in a scholarly journal x. Step 9: revising and resubmitting manuscript if rejected by editors – and this is typical. (e.g., one of the best journals in clinical psychology, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, has a 95% rejection rate xi. Step 10: Celebrate when it’s accepted 3. Clinical Psychologists who are college professors stay busy with: a. Teaching undergraduate courses, writing exams, reading papers, meeting with students, grading. b. Teaching graduate courses, same duties. c. “Case supervision” of graduate students on their work with clients d. Writing and grading doctoral qualifying exams (“comps”, “prelims”, “quals”)(if the faculty member teaches in a Ph.D. program) e. Participating in the admissions process for prospective graduate students f. Supervision of M.A. and Ph.D. candidates on their master’s thesis and doctoral dissertation g. Advisement of undergraduate psychology majors, including those who also seek: i. Bachelor’s level employment ii. Graduate study following graduation from college h. Supervising in the department clinic, seeing clients at the clinic or counseling center, helping students with assistantships or practicum. i. Writing letters of recommendation for your undergraduate students’ summer jobs or clerkships, employment, graduate school applications, and your graduate students’ clinical psychology internships and postdoctoral fellowships j. Serving on departmental, college and community service committees and advisory boards k. Participation in the job search process for new departmental colleagues l. Attainment of licensure in whichever state you reside m. Public statements needed by “a qualified professional” when needed by your community, at College media office’s request n. Input for clinical training, e.g., curriculum, sites, etc. o. Conducting scholarly research with human subjects
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