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ANSC 1011 Section 1 Week 2 Notes

by: Kristy Trahan

ANSC 1011 Section 1 Week 2 Notes ANSC 1011

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Kristy Trahan

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3. Nutrition 4. GI Tract and Nutrition Lecture notes Email me at for further questions.
Introduction to Animal Science
T. Bidner
Class Notes
IntroductiontoAnimalSciences, ThomasBidner, animalsciences
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristy Trahan on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 1011 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Bidner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Animal Science at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan Nutrition  Nutrition- the study of how the body uses nutrients in feeds/foods to sustain life o Consuming to excreting the substances  Nutrient- any chemical substance in the diet that supports or maintains life processes  Ruminants o 4 compartment stomach o Goats, cattle, deer, sheep, etc. o Eat mainly grasses  Because of the RUMEN (the fermentation vat)  Contain bacteria and can digest cellulose (very efficient)  Symbiotic relationship with their bacteria  Non-ruminants o Simple stomach (mono-gastric) o Horses, pigs, dogs, chickens, cats, etc. o Basic vs. Applied  Basic- people are trying to explain why  Knowledge for knowledge sake  Just to learn more things  Applied- more interested in the outcome  Concerned with the efficiency of animals  Feed costs (the highest cost of production for these animals) as a % of total production costs for various species are: o Swine- 60-70% o Beef cattle (feedlot)- 70% o Chickens- 55-65% o Lambs- 50%  So least cost rations are important!!  Functions of feeds that provide nutrients o Maintenance: maintain the body at a constant weight and temperature  Burning the equal number of calories that you take in  Calories in calories out o Growth: deposition of weight  True growth- mainly muscle (mostly in younger animals)  Not so younger animals put on more fat than muscle o Production: output of products  Meat, eggs, wool, milk, etc. o Work: actual work (need high calorie feed for performance)  Draft animals, hunting dogs, etc. o Reproduction:  Essential function to the survival of the species st  1 trait affected by inadequate nutrition  Stop cycling if you get too skinny o Don’t want to get pregnant if you’re too thin  Essential Nutrient- required in the diet  Non-essential Nutrient- a nutrient that is not required in the diet because the body can produce that nutrient in sufficient amounts ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan  Six Classes of Nutrients o Proteins (amino acids) o Carbohydrates (CHO) o Fats (lipids) o Vitamins (vital amine) o Minerals o Water  Fats are the biggest source of energy  Are the first thing deposited throughout the body because it stores the most energy  Carbohydrates are the primary component of most livestock feed (cheaper)  Then we get the next largest amounts of energy from proteins  Takes more energy to digest it than it’s worth if you want to gain weight  Water (most important) (believed we evolved from an aqueous environment) o Most abundant and cheapest nutrient and is often overlooked o Sources- drinking, feedstuffs (most feeds have a % of water), metabolic H2O (from the cells after metabolism occurs) o Functions- transport nutrients, other compounds, and waste o Biochemical nutrients in the cell o Regulate body temperature o Solvent for solid components o Lubricates and cushions joints  Carbohydrates (CHO) o Sugars, starches, cellulose, etc.  Stored as glycogen in animals (not much) or converted to fat and stored o Primary use is to provide the animal with energy o Major part of livestock feeds (very cheap) o Not exactly required in the diet for non-ruminants  Because we can obtain glucose from amino acids, VFA’s, and glycerol (lipid backbone) o Required for ruminants to maintain the bacteria and have a healthy rumen  Proteins o Long chains of amino acids (22 standard, 23 proteinogenic AA, 10 essential, 9 humans (arginine- nonessential)) o Essential amino acids  Phenylalanine, histidine, valine, isoleucine, tryptophan, lysine, methionine, threonine, leucine, arginine  Poultry has two more- glycine, proline  Cats- taurine (get this through meat)  These proteins can be produced synthetically o Functions  Basic structural unit of the body  GENES CODE FOR PROTEINS  Components of lean tissue ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan  Metabolism  Enzymes  Protein hormones  Immune system  Transmission of heredity  Energy  Lipids (fats) o Esters (group of things/chains) of fatty acids and glycerol o Provides 2.25 times more energy than carbohydrates on an equal weight basis o Essential fatty acids:  Linoleic (w-6), linolenic (w-3), arachidonic o Volatile fatty acids (VFA)  Acetic, propionic, butyric (3 primary ones) o Functions:  Extra fat allows the female to cycle and reproduce  Diet  Energy supply in the diet  Provides essential fatty acids  Necessary for the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins  Body  Insulation, heat, protection (cushion), and energy storage  Vitamins o Organic compounds o Needed in small amounts for growth and maintenance o Act as cofactors for enzymes o Functions:  Fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)  Regulation of body functions (vision, blood clotting, and tissue maintenance)  Growth: bone development  Water soluble vitamins (vitamin c, niacin, biotin, choline, cobalamin, folic acid)  Body metabolic regulation  Minerals o Inorganic compounds (bones and teeth) o Very important part of body’s enzyme systems (Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, P) o Serve in vitamin/mineral interrelationships (Vitamin E/Se) o Maintain acid/base balance (Na, Cl, K) o Macrominerals (trace minerals)  Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Sodium (Na), etc.  Need a larger quantity of these o Microminerals  Iron (Fe), Iodine (I), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co), etc.  Feed analysis o Chemical test ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan  Proper feeding requires knowledge of nutrient levels and kinds in a feedstuff and balancing the nutrients to meet the needs of the animal (proximate analysis) o Biological test  Palatability, bioavailability, animal performance  Does not give information on digestion and absorption of nutrients  Diet vs. Ration o Diet- refers to the mix of feed ingredients fed to an animal o Ration- refers to the amount fed to the animal  Nutrient requirements depend on species, age, and productive function Categories of nutritionists: ruminants and nonruminants 6 classes of nutrients: water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals What costs over 50% in production costs? FEED ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan GI Tract and Nutrition  Digestion o The physical, chemical, and enzymatic means the body uses to break down feed/food in order to absorb nutrients for sustaining life o Ruminants vs. non-ruminants Ruminants need forage to keep a healthy rumen.  Digestive systems o Anatomically  Non-ruminants (simple stomach)  Ruminants (complex stomach- 4 compartments) o Diet  Carnivores  Methods of digestion o Physical or mechanical  Chewing (mastication)  Muscular action (peristalsis) o Chemical action  Hydrochloric acid  Bile o Enzymes  Catalysts (speed up the reaction)  Steps of digestion o Prehension  Process by which the animal brings food into its mouth  Birds? Cows? Sheep? Horses? o Mastication  Chewing o Why do we chew our food?  Reduce particle size for swallowing  What about cows?  Rumination (chewing their cud)  Increase pH of rumen o need a lot of forage to keep a healthy rumen ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan  Poultry o Don’t have teeth at all o Crop- sack that holds extra food o Proventriculus- their stomach  Gizzard is behind this and small stones or shells are stored here to help grind food down  Digestion o Stomach- where chemical and enzymatic digestion begins o The food is churned by peristalsis in which it is mixed with hydrochloric acid (HCL) and enzymes (pepsin)  HCL denatures protein, allows for hydrolysis by enzymes, kills bacteria  Pepsin breakdown proteins o Food storage (can eat at a faster rate) o Small intestine (3 parts)  Duodenum (duodenal loop)  Bile and pancreatic enzymes are secreted and is a major site of chemical breakdown of food  Jejunum  Longest part where some digestion occurs but the main function is absorption of nutrients  Ileum  Connecting to the large intestine, but some digestion does take place  Function is to absorb water, electrolytes, vitamins, minerals, and VFA’s produced by bacteria o Large Intestine (3 parts)  Colon  Cecum  Rectum  Function is to absorb water electrolytes, vitamins, minerals, and VFA’s produced by bacteria  Excretion o Defecation- elimination of excrement from the body via the rectum or cloaca o Micturition- process of urination which is the major way that excess nitrogen is excreted, ammonia is converted to:  Urea (mammals)- CO(NH3)2  Uric Acid (birds and other species) C5H4N3O3  This is because birds don’t have a urethra and poop shoot ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan  Comes out the same place  Is white and takes less water than compared to urea o Important for poultry because they don’t have access to water when they are in the egg  Horse GI Tract o Stomach  Small, so feeding is frequent  Has one-way peristaltic movements  Can’t belch/regurgitate COLIC o Colic is a build-up of gas that they can’t pass o Small intestine  Major site of digestion and absorption of nutrients  No gallbladder so bile is excreted continuously  Not as much small intestine as us o Large intestine (cecum/colon)  Way larger than us  Microbial fermentation takes place  Hindgut fermentor, cecum and colon  The cecum is equivalent to the appendix  VFA’s absorbed and used for energy  Microbial protein not utilized much by the horse o Coprography  Eating of feces (only if protein is deficient)  Must have better quality feed (protein)  Horse is less efficient (2/3 for fiber) than ruminants in feed utilization  Ass backwards because of its digestive system  Ruminant Digestion o Main function is the digestion of cellulose  RumenReticulumOmasumAbomasum o Rumen (paunch) accounts for 20% of bodyweight  Microbes (bacteria/protozoa)  Breakdown (cellulose and starch) into VFA’s  Feeding the animal and the bacteria (symbiotic relationship)  Don’t want to switch feeds straight away (have to do it gradually) ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan o Will shock the system because the bacteria aren’t adjusted to the new feed and the bacteria will die  A pH of 6 is normal o Chewing the cud increases the pH of the rumen, mixes with the bacteria, and reduces particle size  Papillae (finger-like) increase absorptive surface area of rumen o Too low of a pH will destroy the papillae (animals on feedlots)  High grain feedsrumen acidosis o Fermentation of starches in grains happens very rapidly, causing a decrease in pH o VFA’s are absorbed and used for energy (50-70%) o Reticulum (honeycomb)  Lies in front and below rumen and is essentially an open compartment  Site of microbial action and of initiation of stomach contractions o Omasum (manyplies)  Can be surgically removed without negative effects  Scientists argue whether or not it is essential  Function seems to be in absorption of water and VFA’s and reducing particle size of feed o Forestomach  The rumen, reticulum, and omasum  Microbes in forestomach can utilize NPN (non-protein nitrogen) to convert to microbial protein o Abomasum  Equivalent to simple stomached animals (is the true stomach)  Reticular or esophageal groove diverts milk directly from esophagus into abomasum in baby calves  Rumen functions at 30-60 days of age ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan  Fermentation o A slow process that allows the animal to utilize cellulose (can take days) o Have to be careful about how they lay down because if the head is lower than the rumen, the rumen fluid will come out o Rumination- highly digestible food is retained and the cow chews its cud o Not a meal feeder but has a constant flow o Plant material stays in the rumen until particle size fits through omasal orifice o Ruminants must constantly stir the rumen contents o Eructation- elimination of gases by controlled belching o Bloat- something goes wrong and gases accumulate, usually due to froth and bubbles  Occurs especially in the spring with the early growth clovers Nutrient Flow  Nutrient Digestion o Protein- 2 routes  By-pass protein  Converted to ammonia by bacteria o Bacteria bodies are about 60% protein o Microorganism: 70-75% bacteria, 20% protozoa; 100-1000 types of bacteria and 40 types of protozoa o Bacteria stick or attach to feedstuffs with help of enzymes o Energy  fat passes through rumen but should only make up 5% of diet o Breakdown of fiber and starches make VFA’s (Volatile Fatty Acids) o Main three- Acetate, Butyrate, and Propionate  If acetic and butyric acids are made, carbon fragments are lost as methane and carbon dioxide  VFA’s o Acetic acid- CH3COOH: colorless liquid, sour taste and pungent smell o Propanoic acid- CH3CH2COOH: clear liquid, with pungent odor o Butyric acid- CH3CH2CH2COOH: colorless liquid with unpleasant smell and acid taste  Propionate o Main source of glucose, converted by the liver for brain function and milk production o Can convert a variety of feedstuffs but too high a level of concentrates can be harmful; steer diet 85% grain, 15% forage o Dairy cow- 50% grain 50% forage, cud chewing increases the pH of the rumen


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