Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Week 2 class notes
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Week 2 class notes FW 104
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devrrae Russell on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Ann Randall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Wildlife Ecology week 2 August 30, 2016 Updates and Info ● Quiz 1 closes tonight and Quiz 2 opens ● Video taped lectures scientific method and biochemical processes ● Pay close attention to the processes in terms of products, byproducts ● Additional biodiversity article Genetics Review ● DNA ○ Watson and Crick ○ The genetic code or blueprint for life uses 4 type of molecular bases ■ Adenine ■ Cytosine ■ Thymine ■ guanine ● Genes ○ The sentences that spell out how we construct proteins which produce traits ● DNA is found in chromosomal pairs ● Locus ○ The position of the gene sequence on the chromosome ● Diploid organisms ○ Pairs of chromosomes ● Alleles ○ Different versions of the same genes are called alleles and code for different versions of the same trait ■ Heterozygous ■ homozygous ● Genotype ○ Genetic blueprint ● Phenotype ○ Outward appearance ○ Physiological or behavioral ■ Not all phenotypes blend well with the environment ● Mutations cause genetic variation ○ Radiation ○ Chemicals ○ replication errors ○ Sexual reproduction ● Evolution ○ Change in the genetic composition of a population over time ○ Can lead to a new species ■ Natural selection ● Environmental factors favor particular inherited traits ○ Overproduction of offspring ○ Struggle for existence ○ Gene variation ○ Differential survival and reproduction ● Why sex ○ Sexual reproduction creates new genotypes which may be less adapted ■ Asexual keeps successful genotype intact ● Can cause population to susceptible to infection ○ Costly in time and energy ● The red queen hypothesis ● The cost and curiosity of animal ornamentation ● All genotype are not always a result of natural selections ○ Artificial selection ● Genetic drift ○ Random change in allele frequencies in small or reduced populations ● Inbreeding ○ Mating between relatives increases the frequency of ● Speciation ○ New species are produced when environments change significantly ● Evolution occurs at the level of population September 1, 2016 Ecology Part 1 Levels of organization: ● Individual ● Population: ○ Individuals of a certain species in given area that interact with each other ● Community: ○ Assemblage of populations that interact with each other in environment ● Ecosystem: ○ Communities with nonliving matter/ energy in the environment What is a species? ● Species: ○ Groups of population that actually or potentially reproduce and produce viable offspring ● Reproducing is isolates from other groups ○ Urchins, bower bird's, stonefly ... Classification ● Kinky People Come Over For Good …. Soup ● Kingdom ● Phylum ● Class ● Order ● Genus ● Species More ecology concepts: ● Habitat: ○ A place or area where a population or animal lives ○ Provides welfare factors ● Habitat components ○ Food ■ Food selection ● predator , omnivore, herbivore, detritivore ■ Food specificity ● Specialist vs. generalists ○ Water ■ 10 20 % loss in body leads to death ○ Cover ■ Types of cover ● Topography ● Water ● Vegetation ■ Can vary seasonally ○ Space ■ Home ranges and territories ● Home range area covered ● Territory area protected ○ Oxygen ○ Special needs… ■ Ruffed grouse example ● Snags Habitat components vs ecosystem services ● Habitat components ○ Specific basal requirements for a species to survive; must be found locally within an animal's habitat ● Ecosystem services ○ Processes through which ecosystems and their biota benefits humans ● Niche ○ Species place and function within the environment ■ predator herbivore ● Fundamental niche ○ All physical, chemical, and biological factors or roles that a species is adated to for life, growth and reproduction ● Realized niche ○ Portion of fundamental niche actually occupied by a species ■ May be restricted by competitive interaction ■ human interaction, land use and management ● Competitive exclusion ○ Two species cannot have the exact same niche ○ Animals overlapping in diet do not necessarily occupy the same niche ● Law of the minimum ○ Organisms growth is limited by the factor in the shortest supply ● Shelford's law of tolerance ○ Species with broad tolerances = flexible, widely distributed ○ Tolerances vary with individuals within a species or with development/ season
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