Music: Chapters 6 and 7
Music: Chapters 6 and 7 Music 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 100 at Boise State University taught by Brian Hodges in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Music: Chapter 6 – Ancient Music Evidence of Ancient Music o Art cave paintings, pottery, sculptures o Written Bible, Greek writings o Instruments Ancient Greeks o Music was involved in all studies o Plato: “I would teach the children music, physics, and philosophy, but the most important is music, for in the patterns of the arts are the keys to all learning” o Pythagoras: Harmony of the Spheres Believed that music is all around us, a fundamental part of life o Humors Music has a powerful effect on you and your feelings Music effects your humors (body fluids) dramatically Warned against bad kinds of music Oral Tradition o Music was passed down from one generation to the next Changes and gets altered with time o Never written down o Ex: Happy Birthday Middle Ages o 476 to 1450 (do not have to know) o Catholic Church and State were the two central powers o Cathedrals and Monasteries (school of scripture) Most of the literate people were involved in the church Most of the music of this time came from the church o Music for the Church Mass – Catholic church service Scriptures were written in Latin Regular townspeople could not understand it (only church people) Liturgy: structure and order of a church service (program) What it Sounded Like Influenced by ancient Greek and Hebrew music No instruments o Associated with accompanying dance (an evil activity) Monophonic, Plain Chant, Gregorian Chant o Only one melody – no harmony, unison o Nonmetrical – free rhythm o Based on medieval modes (scales) o Disc 1: Track 1 o Types of Chant 1. Syllabic: one note per syllable 2. Melismatic: many notes per syllable o Notation Needed a system Started the classic staff with notes Neumes (notes) Only represented sounds, not rhythm Started with one central line representing a central note and notes above and below it Most songs are anonymous o Plain Chant o Hildegard of Bingen A nun, poet, and musician A prophetess – had visions from the Holy Spirit to predict the future Disc 1: Track 2 Polyphony o “many voices” o Evolution First used in 900 C.E. Added additional melodic lines to the monophonic chant Early polyphony = organum Needed a meter to coordinate the two melodies o Notre Dame School Master Leonin added the second melody Perotin added a third and fourth melody Disc 1: Track 4 Interesting, but difficult to listen to the words o Organum Motet Non-church members took the organum and added to it Polytextualism “many texts” Non-church members added French poetry to the Latin scripture French (secular) – upper line Latin (sacred) – bottom line Voices moved at different speeds Faster – upper line Slower – bottom line (tenor) Guillaume de Machaut 1300 – 1377 Known for motets o Both religious and secular types Disc 1: Track 6 Secular Music o Music played outside the church was for entertainment o Minstrels / Troubadours: traveling musicians o Subject matter was usually Courtly Love The man is trying to woo the woman with gifts Unrequited love o Instrumental Music Done by improvisation and rarely written down Usually accompanying dance Music: Chapter 7 – The Renaissance 1450 to 1600 Renaissance means “rebirth” Resurgence in creativity, education, and culture Celebrated human achievement and God o Church still the center of life Influenced by Ancient Greek Culture Musicians o Employed by the church and state Wealthy people hired artists to create art for them o Printing Press was a major invention Printing, selling, and distributing music Music publishers Amateur musicians Vocal Music o By far still the dominant style o A Capella: “in the church style” Unaccompanied vocal music o Some composers focused on instrumental works New Styles o Imitation: same bar of music repeated in different voices, at different points in the song o Word Painting: showing the meaning of the word by the way it is sung Ex: high leap in the music on the word “Heaven” o Duple Meter – 1 2 1 2 1 2 o Triple Meter – 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 is a significant number in the church (3 members of the godhead) o Cantus Firmus: now a base line for harmony Bottom voice Motet o Bounced back and forth between the secular and sacred worlds o For 3-4 voices, based on a chant (cantus firmus) o Latin for all voices Joquin dez Prez o French origin, but most of his career in Italy o Known for his very expressive music o 100 motets, 17 masses, etc. o Disc 1: Tracks 8 and 9 Listen for 4 vocal lines and imitation Sacred Music o Polyphony is the dominant style for church music o Standard sets of words seen over and over again Kyrie Gloria Credo Sanctus Angus Dei Reformations o Martin Luther Horrified that the church was not following scripture exactly Started speaking out against it Started the Lutheran Church o Counter-Reformation Catholic church tried to correct its wrongs Council of Trent A committee of men who were to scrutinize everything the church did and come up with corrections Music needed to be corrected o Polyphony made the words hard to understand o Well known church tunes were being taken and put with inappropriate secular language Giovanni Palestrina o Music director a St. Peter’s in Rome o Simplified the style of the music so the words could be understood Made everyone happy o Pope Marcellus Mass Disc 1: Track 11 Very balanced and structured Six vocal parts Words are very clear Madrigal o Aristocratic form of poetry and music flourished in Italy o Courtly love story o Contained lots of word painting o Thomas Weelkes Disc 1: Track 12 Light subject matter 6 parts
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