Lecture 1 - The Formation of the Earth (GEOS 1004 Dr. Spotila)
Lecture 1 - The Formation of the Earth (GEOS 1004 Dr. Spotila) GEOS 1004
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dylan Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOS 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Spotila in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Lecture 1 - Formation of the Earth Wednesday, August 24, 201610:16 AM A sudden explosion from a single, infinitely dense Point (energy only) at the center of the universe, 13.7 billion years ago No matter prior to the big bang Elemental abundancies/ Big Bang Nucleosynthesis The amount of energy (Big Bang was 3 billion degrees). Cools off very quickly, And fusion stops. Looking at the distribution of elements in the universe. As you go down the periodic table, the heavier elements are much less abundant than the lighter ones (Hydrogen, for example) Observed expansion, Red Shift All galaxies are moving away from the Earth and each other, which means expansion. If light is coming towards you, lower wavelength (blue/violet), going away from you --> longer wavelength (red) Cloud of dust coming together. Congregations of mass, expanding away from Big Bang. Gravitational attraction is proportional to the product of mass of two bodies (G=g(M1)(M2)/r^2 Gravity overcomes inertia of expansion locally. As mass comes together, gravitational force increases; it becomes a runaway process. Gravity Inertia is unstable, so nebulae spin, and go outward because of centrifugal acceleration. Eventually it is dense enough at the center to become a star; fusion begins because of density The process by which the natural abundances of elements within stars change due to nuclear fusion. The stars can evolve (generations) with the abundances of certain elements in them The more heavier elements there are in a supernova, the later generation it is. Because of the heavy metals that are in the sun. The abundance of the elements in the Sun It's in rings. There is an attraction to the center, but also to other stuff. The star is expanding and moving, and it can never catch up. The ring (the junk) is the planetary disk. These accretion process will turn into high energy collisions and impacts (meteors) Large chunks that don’t cross in orbit. These became the planets that orbit around the Sun. Collisions can still happen that change the orbit of the orbiting planets. This results in 8 planets (4 rocky, 4 gaseous). Rocky planets are too close to the Sun to retain a H and He gas envelope. Yes. There are asteroids and asteroid belts left. Hundreds of thousands of objects in the belt. Sometimes they get kicked out that can path a planet. Some are in stable orbit, but this changes dynamically. We still have collisions today. From meteorites. Meteorites that have hit the Earth, which have consistent chemistry and age, known as chondrite meteorites (stony meteorites). In other words, If you analyze the chemical composition, you get the age. By dating the meteorites, we can find the date of the nebula as well. Question of the day - Which of the following objects are smaller than Pluto? a. Charon b. The Earth's Moon c. Venus d. Eris