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History 121 Week Two Lecture Notes

by: Nicole Santner

History 121 Week Two Lecture Notes History 121

Nicole Santner


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-Enlightenment & Origins of French Revoltuion
Western Civilization 1689-
Dr. Seegel
Class Notes
french revolution, enlightenment
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Santner on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 121 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Seegel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization 1689- in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Lecture 3: The Age of Enlightenment (1740-1789) A. Defining the Enlightenment Project a. Critical of church and state, schools or reason and science b. Project to make society more rational and critical, less reliant on authority c. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)(German) i. “The Sage of Konigsberg” ii. German idealism iii. Philosopher and Professor iv. “What is Enlightenment?” (essay contest) (1784) a. “Sapere Aude!”-Have courage to use your own understanding —that is the motto of enlightenment” b. “Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-imposed immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one’s understanding without guidance another. This immaturity is self-imposed when its cause lies not in lack of understanding, but in lack of resolve and courage to use it without guidance from another.” d. Philosophes & the Enlightenment i. Philosophes-public intellectuals; academic philosophers, generally cosmopolitans, established an intellectual/social life outside the royal court and church-controlled universities; met in salons ii. Philosophers believed in common universal “republic of letters’ (a nation/state through text/writing) developed their ideas through personal contacts (letters & manuscripts) e. Isaac Newton (1642-1727)-intellectual hero of the Enlightenment i. WAS the scientific revolution ii. The universe according to Newton a. Principia Mathematica (1687): united celestial and terrestrial machanics b. Like Clockwork: world operated like a masterpiece made possible by the ingenuity of God; others less devout than Newton saw it as clockwork with no need for God’s intervention; gravity could be expressed mathematically c. Faith and Science: saw no conflict between faith and science; laid foundations for modern physics, optics, mechanics; Cambridge University-alchemy; spent long hours trying to calculate beginning and end of the world B. National and Universal a. Hotspots of Enlightenment=European cities (public space) b. Opponents of Enlightenment=church, state, Europe’s old regimes, conservatives (to some extent) c. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)( great German writer) i. The Sorrows of Young Werther a. Diary of a young man who loves nature and rural life, thinks reason cannot help his soul—commits suicide at the end b. **Represents the limits of Reason c. Sparks a Werther craze among the Romantics (costumes etc.) ii. Claimed both by the Enlightenment and early Romanticism C. Critical Reason a. Enlightenment Ideals i. Progress for humanity achieved by rooting out the wrongs left by superstition, religious fanaticism, ignorance, outmoded forms of justice; examine everything in the cold light of reason ii. Natural sciences as a normal course of study for the progress of humanity iii. Major tension between reason and emotion b. David Hume (1711-1776) i. Natural History of Religion (1755) a. Belief in God rested on superstition and fear rather than reason b. Empirical philosophy (‘data’) towards skepticism, atheism=existence of God was not verifiable one way or another c. Adam Smith (1723-1790)-Scottish Economist and Moral Philosopher a. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) b. Individual self-interest, even greed, was rational and compatible with interest of society (human nature) c. Really supported capitalism, banks, trade (in contrast to Ben Franklin, whose ideal society was made up of independent farmers) d. Market forces brought things in line e. Rejected mercantilist view that general welfare would be served by accumulating national wealth through agriculture or the hoarding of gold and silver f. State’s should remove grain trade regulation, protective tarriffs g. Harmonize self-interest with the communal good and interest of society—Free Market h. Supply & Demand, the Invisible Hand i. Laissez-Fair: let it be—let the market correct itself. Considered Laissez Faire to be moral philosophy. Limited government intervention and control of the market by. j. *Government’s Prinicpal Role a. Provide security b. Public Works c. The “Night Watchman State”-there would be a government under capitalism, but principally through rights the individual could be protected from excessive government abuse or interference k. Called himself a moral philosopher d. Jean-Jacque Roussea (1712-1778) i. One of the most radical Enlightenment Thinkers ii. Science is not naturally progressive, but actually corrupts social morals, raised artificial barriers between people and their natural state iii. The “Noble Savage” as an ideal citizen iv. The General Will-the good of the community as achieved through consensus **Sparta as an ideal society v. Social Contract- blueprint for the French Revolution, men could be ‘forced to be free’ a. Preferred form of government was a republic with direct democracy b. Condemned slavery, differences in social status, attacked private property vi. Held rural simplicity in high standard vii. Society is held together by concept or general will viii. “Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains”-chains are artificial ix. Prefigured both Romanticism and the French Revolution Movement Conclusions: Enlightenment Project: fundamentally a self-confidence in the power of human reason to provide solutions to political and social problems, especially that of governance ***Reason as a cure-all (panacea) Lecture 4: Road to the French Revolution 1750s-1789 A. Enlightenment a. Philosophes partially deemed culpable for the French Revolution (Law of Unintended Consequences) B. Industrialization-(1760s-1830s) a. Began in England i. Large internal market (cotton good production increase 10x) ii. Supply of private investment capital from overseas trade & commercial profits 1. Ex: trading companies (British East India Company) with middle class invested in stocks, became extremely profitable from overseas trade) iii. Natural Resources: coal and iron (important for Railroads, factories) iv. Greater opportunities for social mobility 1. Ex: freedom for women to move from countryside to cities (often to work as domestic servants) v. Political stability (two party system) vi. Pragmatism of English & Scottish inventors of machinery—capitalist, independent 1. Ex: James Watt (Steam Engine) C. Social Changes a. Changes in sexual behavior i. New forms of desperation for those arriving to cities ii. **Regulation of sexual behavior-every country had laws about prostitution, adultery, fornication, sodomy, infanticide iii. Urbanized women were especially vulnerable, had little recourse against crimes of abuse and rape---increase in # of abandoned babies iv. Criminalization of homosexuality-No mercy for sodomites (systematically persecuted, imprisoned, executed) v. So called ‘evils’ of masturbation D. Enlightened Absolutism a. “reform from above” through bureaucracy b. Territorial expansion (partition of Poloand by Austria, Prussia, and Russia) c. Education (towards meritocracy) d. Modern civil service e. Legal reforms f. Religious tolerance g. Examples: i. Prussia 1. Growth of Prussian military, militarization of Prussian society— Friedrich the Great 2. Seven Years War (1756-1763): Prussia and Britain allied, France and Austria allied after 200 years of hostility (Diplomatic Revolution); war in Central Europe and North America a. Peter III (husband of Catherine the Great) withdrew Russia from war in 1762 3. Transatlantic World in 1763 a. Prussia victorious, gains Silesia b. France cedes Canada to Britain c. France agrees to remove armies from India d. France vs. Britain in US War h. Habsburg (Austria)-Joseph II (ruled 1780-1790) i. Ambitious reformers—Enlightened despot ii. Religious toleration and expansion of education, allowing minorities and lower class to be education and form middle class iii. 1781: freedom of worship to all Protestants, orthodox, Jews in Habsburg Austria iv. Unified law code v. 1781: abolished personal aspects of serfdom 1. Serfs could: move freely, get married (with the landlord’s permission), could legally enter into trades i. House of Osman (Ottoman)(lasted 1299-1923) i. “the divinely protected well-flourishing domain of the House of Osman” (official title of Ottoman Empire) ii. Based on Islamic law and teachings of the Koran (respect for other ‘people of the book’) iii. Five Pillars of Faith: prayer, alms, fasting, pilgrimage, profession of faith iv. Millet System-minority home rule system, guaranteed minority religious rights, 1. Zimmi-a monotheist who accepts Islamic political law, a protected person under Islam law even if not Muslim v. What kept it together? 1. Geography-a multi-ethnic empire E. France to 1789


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