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Bio102 Chp. 4

by: KennyFry Notetaker

Bio102 Chp. 4 BIOL 1020-001

KennyFry Notetaker

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Chapter 4 notes for biology 102
Principle of Biology
James Zanzot
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by KennyFry Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1020-001 at Auburn University taught by James Zanzot in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Principle of Biology in Biology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Chapter 4. 08/29/2016 Carbon and the molecular diversity of life  Carbon- The backbone of life  Living organism consist mostly of carbon-based compounds  Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large, complex, and diverse molecules  Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and other molecules that distinguish living matter are all composed of carbon compounds Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon compounds  Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon  Organic compounds range from simple molecules to colossal ones  Most organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms in addition to carbon atoms Vitalism vs. Mechanism  Friedrich Wohler synthesized a Urea (living organism) from carbon  Vitalism- is the idea that living things can only be made of living things and found in living things.  Mechanism- Is the synthesizing of living organisms from nonliving sources Stanley Miller experiment created a synthetic “Atmosphere” Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms  Electron configuration is the key to an atoms characteristic  Electron configuration determines the kings and number of bonds an atom will form with other atoms  Can form four covalent bonds Hydrogen valence of 1 Oxygen valence of 2 Nitrogen valence of 3 Carbon valence of 4 Molecular Diversity arising from carbon skeleton variation  Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules Hydrocarbons  Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting only carbon and hydrogen  Many organic molecules such as fats, have hydrocarbon components  Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy Octane- 8 carbon atoms the rest are hydrogen Isomers- are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties  Structural isomers have different covalent arrangements of their atoms  Cis-trans isomers have the same covalent bonds but differ in spatial arrangements  Cis are on same side, Trans are on opposite sides/diagonal  Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other A few chemical groups are key to the functioning of biological molecules  Distinctive properties of organic molecules depend on the carbon skeleton and on the molecular components attached to it  A number of characteristics groups can replace the hydrogens attached to the skeletons of organic molecules Functional group- Hydroxyl- -OH Alcohols,  Is polar as a result of the electrons spending more time near the electronegative oxygen atom  Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugar Carbonyl- C=O Ketones and Aldehydes Carboxyl- Carboxylic acids or organic acids  Acts as an acid, can donate an H+ because the covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar  Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1- and called a carboxylate ion. Amino- Amines  Acts as a base, can pick up an H+ from the surrounding solution  Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1+  Somewhat polar Sulfhydryl- Thiols  Two sulfhydryl groups can react, forming a covalent bond. This Cross linking helps stabilize protein structure  Cross- Linking of cysteines in hair proteins maintains the curliness or straightness of hair. Straight hair can be permanently curled aby shaping it around curlers and then breaking and re-forming the cross linking bonds. Phosphate- Organic phosphates  Contributes negative charge to the molecule of which it is a part  Molecules containing phosphate groups have the potential to react with water, releasing energy. ATP- An important source of energy in cellular respiration Methyl- Methylated compounds  Addition of a methyl group to DNA or to molecules bound to DNA affects the expression of genes  Arrangement of methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function. WRITE DOWN WHA TTHE OBECTIVES ARE FROM POWERPOINTS


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