Bio102 Chp. 4
Bio102 Chp. 4 BIOL 1020-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by KennyFry Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1020-001 at Auburn University taught by James Zanzot in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Principle of Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Chapter 4. 08/29/2016 Carbon and the molecular diversity of life Carbon- The backbone of life Living organism consist mostly of carbon-based compounds Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large, complex, and diverse molecules Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and other molecules that distinguish living matter are all composed of carbon compounds Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon Organic compounds range from simple molecules to colossal ones Most organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms in addition to carbon atoms Vitalism vs. Mechanism Friedrich Wohler synthesized a Urea (living organism) from carbon Vitalism- is the idea that living things can only be made of living things and found in living things. Mechanism- Is the synthesizing of living organisms from nonliving sources Stanley Miller experiment created a synthetic “Atmosphere” Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms Electron configuration is the key to an atoms characteristic Electron configuration determines the kings and number of bonds an atom will form with other atoms Can form four covalent bonds Hydrogen valence of 1 Oxygen valence of 2 Nitrogen valence of 3 Carbon valence of 4 Molecular Diversity arising from carbon skeleton variation Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting only carbon and hydrogen Many organic molecules such as fats, have hydrocarbon components Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy Octane- 8 carbon atoms the rest are hydrogen Isomers- are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties Structural isomers have different covalent arrangements of their atoms Cis-trans isomers have the same covalent bonds but differ in spatial arrangements Cis are on same side, Trans are on opposite sides/diagonal Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other A few chemical groups are key to the functioning of biological molecules Distinctive properties of organic molecules depend on the carbon skeleton and on the molecular components attached to it A number of characteristics groups can replace the hydrogens attached to the skeletons of organic molecules Functional group- Hydroxyl- -OH Alcohols, Is polar as a result of the electrons spending more time near the electronegative oxygen atom Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugar Carbonyl- C=O Ketones and Aldehydes Carboxyl- Carboxylic acids or organic acids Acts as an acid, can donate an H+ because the covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1- and called a carboxylate ion. Amino- Amines Acts as a base, can pick up an H+ from the surrounding solution Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1+ Somewhat polar Sulfhydryl- Thiols Two sulfhydryl groups can react, forming a covalent bond. This Cross linking helps stabilize protein structure Cross- Linking of cysteines in hair proteins maintains the curliness or straightness of hair. Straight hair can be permanently curled aby shaping it around curlers and then breaking and re-forming the cross linking bonds. Phosphate- Organic phosphates Contributes negative charge to the molecule of which it is a part Molecules containing phosphate groups have the potential to react with water, releasing energy. ATP- An important source of energy in cellular respiration Methyl- Methylated compounds Addition of a methyl group to DNA or to molecules bound to DNA affects the expression of genes Arrangement of methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function. WRITE DOWN WHA TTHE OBECTIVES ARE FROM POWERPOINTS
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