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Chapter 1 - Body Organization

by: jessicaerin_

Chapter 1 - Body Organization BIOL 1020-02

Marketplace > Southern Utah University > Life Science > BIOL 1020-02 > Chapter 1 Body Organization
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About this Document

These notes cover a large portion of the material for the upcoming exam.
Human Biology
Carrie Bucklin
Class Notes
BIOL 1020, anatomy, Physiology, HumanBiology




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by jessicaerin_ on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1020-02 at Southern Utah University taught by Carrie Bucklin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Life Science at Southern Utah University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - CHAPTER 1 NOTES: ▯ - Human Anatomy is the study of the body’s structures. ▯ - These structures can vary in size from being microscopic to visible with the naked eye. Two areas of specialization that anatomy can be broken down into is: Gross Anatomy and Microscopic Anatomy. ▯ - Gross Anatomy is the study of the bigger structures that are visible to the eye. ▯ - Microscopic Anatomy is the study of smaller structures that require magnification in order to be observed (such as cells and tissues). ▯ - Anatomists often use two broad approaches to study the body’s structures - Regional Anatomy and Systemic Anatomy. ▯ - Regional Anatomy studies the interrelationships of all structures in a certain region of the body (the stomach for instance). ▯ - Systemic Anatomy studies structures that make up a distinct body system (such as the digestive system). ▯ - Human Physiology is the study of the chemistry and physics of the body’s structures, essentially how they work together, in order to support the functions of life. The study of physiology relies upon both visible and microscopic observations. Physiological study is centered around the body’s inclination to maintain homeostasis. - Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes. ▯ ANATOMY ( studies structure ) whereas PHYSIOLOGY ( studies function or how it works ) ▯ The structure of the human body can be categorized into six different levels that build upon one another to form the structures of organism (the human body). ▯ - atoms made up of subatomic particles - molecules atoms bonded together - cells a combination of various molecules - tissues community of the same kind of cells - organs comprised of two or more different tissues - organ systems two or more organs interworking ▯ ▯ There are eleven organ systems for the human body. These include the: ▯ 1) INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM - includes skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands. The Integumentary System encloses the internal structures of the body. It acts as the body’s protective layer. It helps to regulate body temperature. It is the largest organ system. 2) SKELETAL SYSTEM - includes the bones, joints, and cartilage. It provides shape and structure, allows for movement, and protects the vital organs. It is the site of blood cell formation and stores minerals. 3) MUSCULAR SYSTEM - consists of skeletal muscles and tendons. Enables movement and posture. Helps to regulate body temperature. 4) NERVOUS SYSTEM - comprised of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. It receives and processes information, and then activates bodily responses (such as through muscles and glands). 5) ENDOCRINE SYSTEM - includes the pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, Testes, and Ovaries. The Endocrine System secretes hormones and plays a major role in regulating bodily functions (such as metabolism and reproduction). 6) CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM - Also known as the circulatory system, consists of the heart and blood vessels. It delivers nutrients and oxygen, as well as equalize body temperature. 7) LYMPHATIC SYSTEM - comprised of the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and lymphatic vessels. The Lymphatic system returns fluid to the blood and cleanses it. It works to defend the body against pathogens. 8) RESPIRATORY SYSTEM - includes the nasal passage, trachea, and the lungs. It removes carbon dioxide from the body and delivers oxygen to the blood. 9) DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - is comprised of the stomach, liver, gall bladder, large intestine, and small intestine. It breaks down food for the body, allows for nutrient absorption, and removes waste from undigested food. 10) URINARY SYSTEM - includes the kidneys and the urinary bladder. The Urinary system controls the amount of water in the body and removes wastes from blood and disposes of them. 11) MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM - includes of the epididymis and testes. Produces sex hormones and games. It delivers gametes to the female. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM - includes mammary glands, ovaries, and the uterus. Produces sex hormones and gametes, supports embryo and fetus, and produces milk for an infant. ▯ FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN LIFE ▯ - Metabolism: the physical and chemical processes necessary for the sustainment of life. Metabolism is the sum of all catabolic and anabolic reactions that occur in the body. Two ways that are used to achieve this are Anabolic reactions and Catabolic reactions. ▯ - Anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones, producing the body’s necessary chemicals from the foods consumed. This process requires energy. ▯ - Catabolism is the process by which complex molecules are broken down into smaller molecules, releasing energy. This release of energy is used to drive bodily chemical reactions. - ATP or “adenosine triphosphate” is a chemical compound used to store and release energy in the body. It is the energy currency of the body. - Responsiveness is the ability (of the body) to adjust to alterations in its internal and external environment. ▯ - Development is the sum of all of the changes that the body goes through in life. This includes differentiation and growth. ▯ - Differentiation is the process in which unspecialized cells become specialized cells in both structure and function. ▯ ▯ REQUIREMENTS FOR HUMAN LIFE: ▯ - Oxygen - Nutrients (components necessary for the occurrence of bodily functions) - Certain temperature range ( essential for chemical reactions to occur) - Certain range of atmospheric pressure (keeps gasses within body) ▯ Maintaining homeostasis requires the constant monitoring of internal conditions. Each physiological condition has a specific set point. ▯ - A set point is a physiological value for which around which the normal range fluctuates. - The normal range is the set of values that is ultimately stable and healthy. ▯ Control centers in the brain and body respond to monitor and react to deviations from homeostasis, using negative feedback. ▯ - Negative feedback is a mechanism that reverses the deviation (stimulus) from the set point, keeping it in normal range. - A receptor is a part of the feedback system that monitors a physiological value; this control center will activate an effector to try and regulate it. off from the set poithe then ▯ Positive feedback intensifies a change in the body’s feedback, rather than trying to reverse it (negative feedback). ▯ ▯NATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY Anatomical Position is that of the body standing straight up, facing forward, with the arms out to the side, hands up, and toes to the sky. Anterior - front or direction towards the body ▯ Posterior - back or direction away from the body Superior - or cranial, describes a position above the shoulders. ▯ Inferior - or caudal, describes a position of the body, from the shoulder down. ▯ Lateral - the side or direction towards the side of the body Medial - the middle or direction towards the middle of the body ▯ Proximal - a position in a limb that is nearer to the point of attachment to the body ▯ Distal - a position in a limb that is farther from the point of attachment to the body ▯ ▯uperficial - describes a position closer to the surface of the body Deep - a position farther from the surface of the body ▯ ▯ BODY PLANES ▯ ▯ection - a two dimensional surface of a three dimensional structure that has been cut. Plane - an imaginary two-dimensional surface that intersects the body ▯ Sagittal Plane - a plane that divides an organ or the body vertically into right and left sides. If this dividing line splits right down the middle, it is also know as a medial or midsaggital plane. ▯ Frontal Plane - plane that divides an organ or the body into an anterior and posterior section. Transverse Plane - plane that divides the body horizontally into upper and lower portions. ▯ BODY CAVITIES AND SEROUS MEMBRANES ▯ The body maintains internal organization by the use of membranes, sheaths, and other structures to divide the compartments. These cavities hold and protect fragile internal organs. Cranial Cavity - brain ▯ Spinal Cavity - spine ▯ Thoracic Cavity : heart, lungs, others. ▯ Abdominopelvic Cavity: digestive system, urinary system organs ▯ ▯ There are four abdominopelvic quadrants: right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, and left lower quadrant. There are nine abdominopelvic regions: right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar region, umbilical region, left lumbar region, right iliac region, hypogastric region, left iliac region. ▯ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ ▯ PHYSIOLOGY ▯ - focus on maintaining homeostasis - how systems function together - relies upon understanding form (If you change the form, then you change the function) ▯ ▯ HOMEOSTASIS ▯ Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment. It is necessary for regular body function and to ultimately sustain life. It relies upon communication. ▯ • stimulus produces a change • change detected by a receptor (sensor) • information sent along pathway to activate the effector • effector effects a change • response of effector feeds back to control center ▯ ▯ NECESSARY LIFE FUNCTIONS INCLUDE: ▯ - maintain boundaries - movement - responsiveness - digestion - metabolism - excretion - reproduction - growth ▯ SURVIVAL NEEDS: - - oxygennts - water - stable body temperature - atmospheric pressure ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯


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