Week 4 herbs notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 3440 at University of Georgia taught by James Affecter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Week 4 Notes for HORT 3440 CRN10344 (8/29/2016 -9/2 /2016) Monday: Link to article on elc: “Garam Masala: A Taste Worth Acquiring” Composed salad: bed of greens with dressing and then groups of food on top of it (meats, nuts, vegetables, etc) Categories of Medicinal Plant Use 1) Pharmaceutical medicines: prescription and OTC; potent; highly targeted 2) Herbal OTC products: dietary supplements; natural compounds; less refined; less potent 3) Traditional and folk medicines: often used in the context of alternative belief systems Pharmaceutical Drug Development • Cost of developing and bringing a new prescription drug to market is about $350 million to $5 billion • Drug patents extend 20 years from date of filing; effective life generally 7-12 years (you have to apply for a patent before you can start testing on people) The effective life is the time that you can monopolize the market of the medicine Drug with highest US sales from April 2014-March 2015 • Humira (arthritis, Chron’s disease) $8.2 billion Plant-derived Prescription Drugs • Approx. 120 prescription drugs are derived form plants (representing 95 species) • 40% of the prescriptions written in the USA contain one or more plant- derived active ingredients (i.e. plants provide raw materials, building blocks, templates) Characteristics of medicinal plants • Plants valued for their physiological, therapeutic, or psychoactive effects • Occur in many different plant families • Not limited to any particular geographic areas or habitats • The active principles in these plants often involve secondary metabolites (e.g. tannins, alkaloids, terpenes); these compounds often play important ecological roles in nature (defense, pollination, dispersal) • Can be weedy or rare species, widespread or narrowly distributed • Some have long history of cultivation, others have never been domesticated • Many medicinal plants have been used in crude forms for thousands of years and are still very important today as pharmaceutical medicines • Often their chemical components have been structurally modified to make them more potent, easily administrated, and less toxic Opium Poppy, Papaver somniferum, Poppy family • Annual, native to Mediterranean • The latex that is cut out is opium • Immature fruit capsule is source of opium, a latex containing 25 different alkaloids • Morphine and codeine are powerful analgesics (pain relievers) • Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine • 5% of crop is used in medicine Alkaloids • Compounds consisting of rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms that cause physiological reactions in animals • Usually slightly basic on the pH scale (i.e. alkaline) • Chemically diverse, many synthesized in plant cells form amino acids • Named with the suffix (-ine” (e.g. caffeine, morphine) Deaths from heroin overdose surged 175% in the US between 2010 and 2014 Opium production in Mexico increased 50% in 2014 Children make good harvesters of opium because if they fall down the steep slopes it grows on, they’re less likely to hurt themselves Coca, Erythroxylum coca, Coca family • Evergreen shrub, native to eastern slopes of Andes- Peru and Bolivia • Source of cocaine, alkaloid with stimulant and anesthetic properties • Used by Incas to relieve fatigue, thirst, and hunger • Leaves chewed with powdered lime • Coca Cola used to contain cocaine • Shrub has been introduced to Indonesia where use is widespread Cocaine • Popularized in Europe by Sigmund Freud and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle • Cocaine was once used as a local anesthetic in eye surgery and dentistry; little medicinal use of cocaine today; synthetics Novacaine and Xylocaine developed that lack the stimulatory effects of cocaine • Highly addictive and dangerous cardiovascular side effects In 1886, Georgian druggist John Pemberton introduced an non alcoholic and then an alcoholic version of Coca-Cola Today the Coca leaves are “decocainized” Cola refers to an extract of the African Kola nut that contains 2% caffeine Willow, Salix spp., Willow family • Shrubs or trees, widespread in cold and temperate regions • Bark is the source of salicine, the compound that led to the development of aspirin • Roots used in ancient Greece for pain and gout, by Native Americans for headaches • Today, aspirin is the most widely used drug after alcohol and nicotine Glycosides • Each molecule consists of a sugar (often the simple 6-carbon glucose molecule) bonded to a non-sugar compound • The non-sugar portion is variable and often toxic and/or medicinally valued • Cyanogenic glycosides (e.g. amygdalin) produce hydrocyanic acid (HCN) when the glycoside breaks apart; results in cyanide poisoning (in seeds of almonds, plums) • Other glycosides are useful in treating heart disease Salicine is a glycoside that breaks down into salicylic acid and a simple sugar when ingested Salicidic acid was widely used in the 19 century for pain relief and for reducing fever and inflammation Unpleasant side effects of salicylic acid were stomach pain and nausea The German Bayer company instoduced a derivative, acetyl salicylic acid in 1899 and named it “aspirin”. “a” for acetyl and “sprin” from the generic name “Spirea” (White willow, meadowsweet, wintergreen) Aspirin and Prostaglandins Aspirin blocks and enzyme that is involved in the production of hormones called prostaglandins; these are chemical mediators that bring about the inflammatory response by: • Vasodilation • Making capillaries permeable • Sensitizing nerve cells to pain Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) • NSAISs, including aspirin, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fevers • Ibuprofen (brand names Motrin, Advil) is another NSAID that inhibits the formation of prostaglandins Wednesday: Indian Snakeroot, Rauwolfia serpentine, Apocynaceae • Shrub native from India to Indonesia • Roots are source of the alkaloid receptor • Reserpine is used as a pharmaceutical drug to lower blood pressure and as a treatment for schizophrenia • It has a long history of use in traditional Ayurvedic medicine • Used to treat epilepsy, mental disorders, hypertension, dysentery • Antidote for snake and insect bites • Mahatma Ghandi chewed the roots to achieve a state of calm and contemplation • In the 1930s, Indian researchers demonstrated in clinical trials that Snakeroot extracts were effective as a sedative in cases of mental illness and in lowering blood pressure • Eventually western pharmaceutical companies took notice and in 1952 the alkaloid reserpine was isolated and identified as the most active component • Reserpine lowers blood pressure by blocking the neurotransmitter molecules that transmit nerve signals between the sympathetic nervous system and the heart and blood vessels, relaxing blood vessels and reducing heart output • Reserpine was used in psychiatric medicine as an alternative to shock treatments and drastic surgeries such as lobotomies • Indian snakeroot is difficult to propagate • Seed germination is only 10%; plants are propagated by rootstock cuttings • Wild populations are still harvested for raw materials • Species is endangered throughout much of range Dr. William Withering, Account of the Foxglove, 1785- Foxglove Helps edema and heart problems Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea, Snapdragon family • Herbaceous, biennial, popular ornamental garden plant • Native to Europe • Leaves are source of the cardiac glycosides digoxin and digitoxin • The effective dose is close to fatal dose • Slows down and strengthens heartbeat; treats congestive heart failure Digitoxin is a glycoside • Digitoxin (from Digitalis) is a glycoside useful in treating heart disease; is Increases cardiac output and fluid excretion; decreases edema (dropsy) and fluid in the lungs • Flowers and leaves of Foxglove can be fatally toxic; the therapeutic does is close to the toxic does, so no self medicating! Vincent van Gogh painted his Portrait of Dr. Gachet several months before committing suicide • Dr. Gachet is believed to have treated van Gogh with Digitalis for mania and epilepsy • “Xanthopsia” is an occasional side effect of digitalis, causing a person to perceive a yellow tint in his surroundings • Some art historians attribute the yellow tine in many of van Gogh’s paintings to xanthopsia! The popularity of plant medicines declined then increased during the 19 and 20 th centuries • Advances in “bench chemistry” during the 1800s led to a shift in interest away from natural products towards “more modern” synthetics and derivatives (remember the aspirin example) • Interest in discovering new drugs from plants was reawakened following the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in 1929 Infection: the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and parasites that are not normally present within the body Antibiotics: a medicine that destroys or slows down the growth of microorganisms, primarily bacteria Penicillin is a group of antibiotic drugs derived from Pencillium fungi Host for penicillin in cantaloupe market In the 1950s, there was a renewed interest in using “random screening programs” to search for pharmaceutical medicines from plants • Plant extracts were tested against various bioassays to look for therapeutic properties against cancer, diabetes, and other diseases • Bioassays are tests for biological activity using living organisms (e.g. mice), tissues, cultures, etc. Madagascar Periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus, Dogbane family • Annual or perennial, native to Madagascar • Related to the common groundcover Vinca (Myrtle) • Contains the alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine • Used as a chemotherapy agent for treatment of leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease Pacific Yew, Taxus brevifolia, Yew family • Evergreen tree, native to the Pacific Northwest USA • Grows in old growth forests (Spotted Owl habitat) • Bark contains paclitaxel (tradename Taxol), used in cancer treatment, particularly breast, lung, testicular, and ovarian cancers. Friday: Targeted Screening Strategies 1) Taxonomic targeting 2) Ecological targeting 3) Ethnobotanical targeting 4) Zoopharmacognosy Potato Family, Tropane Alkaloids • Atropine • Hyosciamine • Scopolamine (hallucinogenic) (good for motion sickness) Remember: alkaloids have Nitrogen atoms Tropane alkaloids are… • Fat soluble (can be absorbed through skin) • Analgesic (pain-relieving) • Anesthetic (causes the loss of sensation) • Narcotic (inducing sleep of stupor, simultaneously relieving pain) “Hexing herbs”: Henbane, Belladonna (belladonna was used to make eyes larger and attractive) These were thought to be used with witchcraft TV chef has a novel way to spice up a salad: • In a recent edition of Healthy and Organic living, celebrity chef Antony Worrall Thompson shared that henbane was great to include in salads. • Unfortunately, he confused Henbane with another weed, Fat Hen (Chenopodium album) • The name Henbane means “killer of hens” • Consumption can cause hallucinations, convulsions, vomiting and death • In modern herbal medicine, Henbane is used to relieve pain in the digestive system • In Medieval times, fumes of burning henbane seeds were thought to drive out the “worm” that causes toothaches • Herbalist Andrew Chevallier commented “if anyone followed the advice, call 999 and get your stomach pumped” • Mr. Thompson apologized and said that he had confused the herb with another one Datura- shrubby hallucinogenic plants Species in the genus Brugmansia (Devil’s Trumpet) are tree-like versions of Datura species They are used in South American to produce violent hallucinations There are several species of Brugmansia and numerous cultigens (a plant species or variety known only in cultivation arising from artificial selection) Ecological Targeting: Tropical Vines • A disproportionately large number of medicinally useful compounds from tropical forests come from lianas (vines) • Vines usually have relatively few, short-lived leaves that are scattered through the canopy • Lianas might be expected to concentrate more of their resources in highly active “qualitative” defense compounds (e.g. alkaloids) rather than energetically expensive broad-spectrum “quantitative” defenses that reduce digestibility (e.g. tannins and ligins) Curare- Blowgun dart poisons • Curare mixtures contain several different species • An important component is Chondodendron tomentosum, which contains the alkaloid tubocurarine • Used in Western medicine as a muscle relaxant during surgery; it blocks the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles Ethnobotanical Targeting • Ethnobotany is the study of the relationships between plants and people • Ethno-directed sampling is based on the concept that indigenous cultures have been performing “human bioassays” on the plants in their immediate environment for generations through systems of traditional medicine • This technique involves direct interaction with local cultures to study what plants are used medicinally, and for what purpose. Details concerning preparation of medicines and collecting practices are also important UGA professors (Berlins) studied Maya medicine. The first group of plants that they looked at were relating to helping gastrointestinal disorders. They would compare which plants were used for which type of diarrhea. Ethnobotanical sampling for medicinal compounds can be seen as a two step process: 1) The cultural “pre-screen”: Indigenous people experiment with the plants in their environment and identify those that are bioactive 2) The conscious or subconscious intellectual screen that scientists employ to determine which plants warrant further study Characteristics of cultures that are most likely to yield valuable results in medicinal plant surveys: • Presence of a cultural mechanism for the accurate transmission of medicinal plant knowledge from generation to generation • A floristically diverse environment • Continuity of residence in the area over many generations Difficult issues that have led to serious political confrontations in the last decade • Genetic property rights (under the Rio Treaty on Biodiversity each signatory nation has sovereignty over all biodiversity within its boundaries) • Intellectual property rights (communities should be compensated for the knowledge acquired through generations of cultural pre-screening) • Prior informed consent (local communities- in addition to national governments- must also give consent for research activities) Bioprospecting: the search for new pharmaceutical or industrial chemicals from plants and animals Biopiracy: bioprospecting activities that do not adequately address issues of intellectual and genetic property rights Zoopharmacognosy- What can we learn from other animals, particularly primates, concerning new medicinal compounds from plants? Chimpanzees ingest leaves of Aspilia mossambicensis