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BIOS 1000 Week 2

by: Kaitlyn Meinzer

BIOS 1000 Week 2 BIOS 1000

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Kaitlyn Meinzer

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Animal Diversity week 2
Animal Diversity
Patrick Hassett
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Meinzer on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 1000 at Ohio University taught by Patrick Hassett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
BIOS Week 2, August 29, 2016 • Ecology basics ◦ Ecology can be studied at many different levels ‣ Organism ‣ Population ‣ Community ‣ Ecosystem ‣ Biosphere • Populations ◦ Population- A reproductively interactive group of animals of a single species ◦ population and evolution ‣ Two populations must be reproductively isolated from one another for a new species to be created. ‣ Example: Arizona "Sky Islands" • Very tall mountains separated by desert • Cool neat mountain top, hot at base • During ice age, region as cool. As ice retreated, region warmed, and many species distribution moved higher up the mountain • Eventually, different populations became isolated by hot desert between mountains ◦ Animal Organization ‣ Unitary- Genetically distinct individuals, its sexual reproduction ‣ Colonial- Colonies of genetically identical individuals. Reproduce primarily by cloning, but have sexual stage at some point in life cycle. ‣ A clone is an exact genetic duplicate ◦ Why sexual reproduction? ‣ Promotes genetic variation • Great in the long run ‣ Without genetic variation, the chances of adapting to environmental change is reduced ‣ Thus, species that reproduce asexually still have a sexual phase ◦ There at many variations on these two basic forms of reproduction ◦ Parthenogenesis ‣ Asexual (clonal) reproduction by females in absence of males ‣ Allows for rapid population growth - no need to find a mate ◦ Hermaphrodite ‣ Both male and female organs in one individual ‣ Seen in jellyfish, flatworms, snails, fish, and many other ◦ Simultaneous ‣ Animal has both male and female organs ‣ Flatworms, earthworms, many snails ◦ Sequential • Animal alternate between male and female • common in wrasses (type of saltwater fish) ◦ Sexual Parasites ‣ Male becomes parasitic on female ‣ Example: Anglerfish • Tiny male bites, then fuses with female ◦ Population Growth ‣ Two basic strategies • (with many variations) ‣ Exponential growth- numbers increase more rapidly ‣ K- and r- selection • Describes two basic strategies for population growth • K- selection- Species tend to maintain maximum stable population level • r- selection- Species tend to maintain maximum growth rate • There are tradeoffs with either strategy (you can't design a perfect animal) • Community ◦ Communities ‣ Consists of the organisms that interact with each other within a defined area ‣ Members of communities are determined mainly by competition and predation • Competition ◦ For space among barnacles • Predation ◦ Drives the design of the animals ◦ Food Web ‣ The terms "food web" and "food chain" describes 'who eats who' in a community ‣ Example: • Krill-simple for web • Phytoplankton --> krill --> whales/seals ‣ Energy is loss • At each step in a food chain engird is lost (feeding isn't 100% efficient). So, short food chains tend to have much greater production at the top, the krill chain being a prime example. • Protozoa ‣ Plantae- multicellular, eukaryotic ‣ Animalia- multicellular, eukaryotic ‣ Fungi- multicellular, eukaryotic ‣ Protista- eukaryotic, unicellular, and multicellular ‣ Eubacteria- unicellular, prokaryotic ‣ Archaebacteria- unicellular, prokaryotic ◦ Kingdom Protista ‣ Protozoans • (amebas, ciliates) • Similar to animals, but unicellular ‣ Algae • (diatoms, red algae) • Similar to plants (photosynthesis) ‣ Differ from animals/plants/fungi most importantly in how they reproduce ◦ Algae: Diatoms • silica shell, photosynthetic ‣ Surf-zone diatoms • specialized algal community inhabits thin layer on surface of waves • foam provides surface for diatoms to grow ‣ Diatoms • can form long chains ◦ Brown Algae (kelp) ‣ Move by flowing extensions of the cytoplasm ‣ Amebas ◦ Ciliates ‣ Move by coordinated motion of many short hair-like structures ◦ Dinoflagellates ‣ Move by beating of one or two hair-like flagella ◦ Expansion of HAB problems in the US ‣ Mainly around the coasts • most people around the coasts ‣ Pollution and human waste is fertilizing the problem ◦ Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins ‣ Saxitoxin is one of about 12 different toxins in Alexandrium ‣ Toxins act on nervous system, are water-soluble so will be flushed out of the body ‣ Diary of Alaskan settler from 1900 recorded the frequent "tingly" sensation of the tongue after eating mussels ◦ Bioaccumulation ‣ Occurs when consumers is either unaffected by toxin, or impaired and preyed upon • Ex: Toxic algae ---> mussels (unaffected) ---> human • Ex: Toxic algae ---> copepods (unaffected) ---> small fish (impaired) ---> larger fish (killed) ◦ Ciguatera ‣ Found in tropical waters ‣ Caused by dinoflagellate ‣ Toxins accumulate in top predators (such as barracuda) ◦ Cyanobacteria blooms also can produce PSP toxins ‣ Occur when nitrogen in limiting • Cyanobacteria use nitrogen gas ‣ More common in freshwater ‣ Blooms occur in western, shallow parts of Lake Erie ◦ Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning ASP ‣ Can produce lesions in brain and cause permanent short term memory loss ◦ Brown Tide ‣ First appeared in 1985 in Long Island, NY ‣ Caused by small, open ocean species ‣ Not harmful to humans, but destroys selfish populations


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