Intro to Biology Week 2 Notes
Intro to Biology Week 2 Notes BIOL 107-06
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by emmy_rose4267 on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 107-06 at Truman State University taught by Daniela Ostrowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology I in Biology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Intro to Biology 8/30 Chemical Bonds Electrons are on different shells in different orbitals. The outer shell contains the valence electrons (want to have 8) 1st shell (inside) can hold 2 electrons, then the rest can hold 8 Unpaired electrons form bonds 1) Ionic bond: transfer of electrons ex) NaCl: Na has 11 electrons and Cl has 17 so it needs 1 more electron to fill it’s outer shell with 8, and now Na gets a positive charge while Cl becomes negative. Ion: when atoms changes and gets an electrical charge Atoms on the left side of the periodic table form positive ions and negative ion will be the nonmetal. 2) Covalent bonds: electron sharing Two atoms both with an unpaired electron and in the outer shell, they share an electron ex) when 2 atoms (Oxygen) get closer they try to share an electron, oxygen has 8 electrons so it is missing 2 on the outer shell. The 2 oxygen atoms are attracted and bonded by 2 electrons that they will share. Electronegativity: attraction for shared elements O>N>C=H The higher the electronegativity, the greater the attraction Polar covalent bond: partial charge (water) Nonpolar covalent bond: doesn’t change charge Pbslearningmedia.org crash cource chemistry 23 9/1 Chemical reactions Metabolic pathways: chemical reactions that occur in the body Properties of Water Water is polar and have weak electrical attractions. 1) Adhesion: attaches to different substances ex) capillarity: water rises against gravity as a result of surface tension ex) imbibition: water absorbed by solidscolloids causing an increase in volume 2) Cohesion: water molecules attract to each other Water also has… high specific heat high thermal conductivity a high boiling point a high freezing point is a good evaporative coolant Water is a solvent because of its polarity 1) Hydrophilic water will dissolve in water (usually polar) 2) Hydrophilic: water will not dissolve in water (usually nonpolar) Acids: substances that release hydrogen ions or donate them to solutions Bases: substances that accept hydrogen ions resulting in formation of hydroxide ions Buffer: helps maintain homeostasis in our pH BioChemistry Organic molecules: composed of carbon atoms bonded to other element(s) Isomer: organic compounds with the same formula but different structural arrangement Polymers: large molecules consisting of many identical building blocks Monomers: the building blocks of polymers Dehydration reaction: removes a water molecule as 2 molecules become bonded together Hydrolysis: breaks the bond between by adding a water molecule Organic Molecules Organic compounds can have different functional groups 1) Carbs: can be simple or complex A) Monosaccharides: CH2O glucose, fructose, and galactose are isomers Simples sugars differ in… Location of Carbonyl group Location of Hydroxyl group Number of carbon atoms present Spatial arrangement of their atoms B) Disaccharides: two monosaccharides bonded together Resulting covalent bond is called glycosidic linkage C) Polysaccharides: many monosaccarhides bonded together
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