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Intro to Biology Week 2 Notes

by: emmy_rose4267

Intro to Biology Week 2 Notes BIOL 107-06

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These notes cover lectures from week 2.
Introduction to Biology I
Daniela Ostrowski
Class Notes
Chemistry, Biology
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by emmy_rose4267 on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 107-06 at Truman State University taught by Daniela Ostrowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology I in Biology at Truman State University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Intro to Biology  8/30  Chemical Bonds  ­Electrons are on different shells in different orbitals.  ­The outer shell contains the valence electrons (want to have 8)  ­1st shell (inside) can hold 2 electrons, then the rest can hold 8  ­Unpaired electrons form bonds    1) Ionic bond: transfer of electrons   ex) NaCl: Na has 11 electrons and Cl has 17 so it needs 1 more electron to fill it’s outer  shell with 8, and now Na gets a positive charge while Cl becomes negative.  ­Ion: when atoms changes and gets an electrical charge  ­Atoms on the left side of the periodic table form positive ions and negative ion will be  the nonmetal.    2) Covalent bonds: electron sharing  ­Two atoms both with an unpaired electron and in the outer shell, they share an electron  ex) when 2 atoms (Oxygen) get closer they try to share an electron, oxygen has 8  electrons so it is missing 2 on the outer shell. The 2 oxygen atoms are attracted and  bonded by 2 electrons that they will share.  ­Electronegativity: attraction for shared elements O>N>C=H  ­The higher the electronegativity, the greater the attraction   Polar covalent bond: partial charge (water)   Nonpolar covalent bond: doesn’t change charge crash cource chemistry 23   9/1  Chemical reactions  Metabolic pathways: chemical reactions that occur in the body    Properties of Water  ­Water is polar and have weak electrical attractions.  1) Adhesion: attaches to different substances  ex) capillarity: water rises against gravity as a result of surface tension  ex) imbibition: water absorbed by solids­colloids causing an increase in volume  2) Cohesion: water molecules attract to each other  ­Water also has…   high specific heat    high thermal conductivity   a high boiling point  a high freezing point    is a good evaporative coolant  ­Water is a solvent because of its polarity  1) Hydrophilic water will dissolve in water  (usually polar)  2) Hydrophilic: water will not dissolve in water (usually nonpolar)  Acids: substances that release hydrogen ions or donate them to solutions  Bases: substances that accept hydrogen ions resulting in formation of hydroxide ions  Buffer: helps maintain homeostasis in our pH    BioChemistry  Organic molecules: composed of carbon atoms bonded to other element(s)  Isomer: organic compounds with the same formula but different structural arrangement  Polymers: large molecules consisting of many identical building blocks  Monomers: the building blocks of polymers  Dehydration reaction: removes a water molecule as 2 molecules become bonded  together  Hydrolysis: breaks the bond between by adding a water molecule    Organic Molecules  ­Organic compounds can have different functional groups  1) Carbs: can be simple or complex  A) Monosaccharides: CH2O  ­glucose, fructose, and galactose are isomers  Simples sugars differ in…  Location of Carbonyl group  Location of Hydroxyl group  Number of carbon atoms present  Spatial arrangement of their atoms  B) Disaccharides: two monosaccharides bonded together  ­Resulting covalent bond is called ​glycosidic linkage  C) Polysaccharides: many monosaccarhides bonded together                         


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