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PSY 1010 Week 2

by: Kaitlyn Meinzer

PSY 1010 Week 2 PSY 1010

Marketplace > Ohio University > PSY 1010 > PSY 1010 Week 2
Kaitlyn Meinzer

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Week 2 notes and will be on exam 1
General Psychology
Mark Alicke
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Meinzer on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Ohio University taught by Mark Alicke in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Week 2 • Neuroscience and Behavior ◦ Neuroscience ‣ study of hoe genetics and the nervous system influence behavior, thoughts and feelings ‣ Chemical Imbalances ---> Depression ‣ Genetic makeup ---> IQ, Personality, Aggression ◦ Overview of the nervous system ‣ The organization of the nervous system can be understood in terms of groups of neurons, which are composed of nerve cell bodies and nerve cell fiber tracts ‣ 100 billion neurons ‣ 100 trillion connections ‣ On average, every neuron forms about 1,000 connections, although some have as many as 5,000-6,000 • Neural Communications ◦ Neurobiologist and other investigators understand that humans and animals operate similarly when processing information ◦ Afferent Neurons- sensory ‣ Carry information to the brain ◦ Efferent Neurons- motor ‣ Carry information from the brain to muscles and glands ◦ Interneurons ‣ Connect neurons and integrate activities ◦ Structure and Function of the Neuron ‣ All neurons have three features in common • cell body • axon • dendrites • Neuron ◦ A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many different parts ‣ Cell body- The cells life support center ‣ Dendrites- Receive messages from other cells ‣ Axon- Passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands ‣ Neural Impulse- Action potential, electrical signal traveling down the axon ‣ Terminal branches of axon- From junctions with other cells ‣ Myelin sheath- Covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses ◦ Neural Activity ‣ Resting potential ‣ -70 millivolts • inside negative with respect to outside ‣ reference point from which fluctuations are compared ‣ When membrane potential is more positive than -70, depolarization occurs ‣ When more negative- hyper polarization ‣ As the neuron is reduced to a critical point, what is called thresholds, the inside of axon briefly becomes more positive then outside ‣ Cell fires- action potential ◦ Action Potential ‣ A neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon and is generates by the movement f positively charges atoms in and out of channels in the axons membrane ◦ All or non law ‣ once the cell fires, the strength of the response (for a particular cell) is always of he same magnitude ‣ Since a neuron respond to a more intense stimulus with more intense or rapid impulse, how does the nervous system code stimulus intensity ◦ Rate or firing ‣ The more intense the stimulus, the faster its rate of firing • more action potentials are produced per unit of time ‣ Absolute refractory period- 1/1000 sec. can't fire ‣ relative refractory period- need relatively more intense stimulus to fire ◦ Synaptic Transmission ‣ Synapse is the fictional connection between two neurons ‣ The point at which one neuron transfers a signal to the next ◦ Synapses and Neurotransmitters ‣ The neural impulse travels down the axon toward dendrites of the next neuron ‣ IN the terminal button, the impulse triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap ‣ At a receptor site on the dendrite of the receiving neuron, the neurotransmitter causes channels to open and creates an action potential ◦ Reuptake ‣ Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of reuptake. ‣ This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action • Neural Communication ◦ some neurotransmitters and their functions ‣ Acetylcholine • Function: Enables muscle action, learning, and memory • Examples of Malfunctions: Undersupply, as ACh-producing neurons deteriorate, marks Alzheimer's disease ‣ Dopamine • Function: Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion • Examples of Malfunctions: Excess dopamine receptor activity linked to schizophrenia; starved of dopamine, the brain produces the tremors and decreased mobility of Parkinson's disease ‣ Serotonin • Function: Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal • Examples of Malfunctions: Undersupply linked to depression; Prozac and some other antidepressant drugs raise serotonin levels ‣ Norepinephrine • Function: Helps control alertness and arousal • Examples of Malfunctions: Undersupply can depress mood ‣ GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric Acid) • Function: A major inhibitory neurotransmitter • Examples of Malfunctions: Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia ‣ Glutamate • Function: A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory • Examples of Malfunctions: Oversupply can overstimulate brain, producing migraines or seizures ( which is why some people avoid MSG, monosodium glutamate, in food) • Cerebral cortex ‣ Is a thin layer of neurons that lie on the cerebral hemisphere location of the brain ◦ Functions ‣ The functions of the cortex can be divided into: ‣ Motor Functions ‣ Sensors Functions ‣ Association Functions ◦ Divided into 4 lobes ‣ Occipital • vision ‣ Parietal • somatosensory • skin and muscles ‣ Temporal • Hearing ‣ Frontal • Association • Language, thinking, imaging ◦ Visual Function ‣ The functional MRI scan shows the visual cortex is active as the subject looks at faces ◦ Auditory Functions ‣ The functions MRA scan shows the auditory cortex is active in the patients who hallucinate ◦ Association Area ‣ More intelligent animals have increased "uncommitted" or association areas of the cortex • Neurological Disorders ◦ Nature's experiments in brain functions ◦ Apraxia ‣ Disturbance in organizing voluntary actions ‣ Ex: Light cigarette, put match in mouth ◦ Agnosia ‣ Disorganization of various aspects of sensory world ‣ Ex: Psychological blindness ◦ Sensory Neglect ‣ Attentional disorders- ignore one half of the visual field or one half of the body ‣ Ex: Forget to shave left side of the face ◦ Prosopagnosia ‣ Inability to recognize faces ◦ Anosognosia ‣ Inability to acknowledge disease in oneself ‣ ex: A major stroke victim who is entirely paralyzed on the left side of the body may be completely oblivious to the problem ‣ Lack emotion and feeling ◦ Aphasia ‣ Language disorder ◦ 1. Expressive Aphasia ‣ Inability to speak correctly ‣ Cannot synthesize individual mouth movements ‣ Lower left frontal lobe ◦ 2. Receptive Aphasia ‣ Inability to understand speech ‣ Temporal and parietal


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