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EXSS/ESMS 3405, Week 2 Notes

by: Jay

EXSS/ESMS 3405, Week 2 Notes EXSS 3405

University of Memphis

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Hey everyone, these are the notes for the second week of class. I went into details explaining some of the topics as easy as I possibly could. If you want links relating the topics we go over in cl...
Anatomic Kinesiology
Dr. Lawrence Weiss
Class Notes
Kinesiology, exercise science, synovial joints, ROM
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jay on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSS 3405 at University of Memphis taught by Dr. Lawrence Weiss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Anatomic Kinesiology in Exercise/Sports Science at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 09/02/16
8/29 - 9/2 Joint Types (A joint is the connection between bones that allow movement and help the bones grow) 1. Synarthrodial : joints that cannot move example would be the sutures in the skull or cranium. This would be a fibrous joint which is a joint that has little to no movement. 2. Amphiarthrodial (this would be a cartilaginous joint, produce slight movement) a. Syndesmosis - interosseous ligament is a ligament that is between two bones (the connect between the two bones) for example the tibia/fibula and radius/ulna b. Symphysis - fibrocartilage which resists compression, prevents bone to bone, and limits movement. An example would be the pubic symphysis, it moves slightly during childbirth 3. Diarthrodial a. Arthrodial - another name for it is Gliding Joint, the surfaces of the bones are flat so that the bones can slide against one another smoothly. It is also a synovial joint. The motion involves sliding and twisting motions. Example of this would be the ankles and wrist. b. Ginglymus - Hinge Joint allows motion or movement in one plane. Ex: elbow and knee. Think about a door hinge (swinging motion), it only swing in one plane meaning it only goes back and forth aka Extension and Flexion. Synovial joint c. Trochoid - Pivot Joint, this joint allows the bone to rotate. Your head moving side to side is an example, its movement is around the central axis (middle of the body), and the bones would be the axis and atlas. This joint is also a synovial joint. d. Condyloid - ellipsoid, it has an oval shape so that another bone fits into it. This joint only produce back and forth and circular rotations, your knuckles or Metacarpophalangeal joints would be an example. This is a Synovial Joint. e. Enarthrodial - Multiaxial ball and socket/Ball-and-Socket, the name gives it away. You instantly think of the shoulder (glenohumeral joint) and the hip (coxal joint). These joints have a great ROM (range of motion) than the other joints; they move in all planes and involve rotational movements. This is a Synovial Joint. f. Saddle - sellar, triaxial joint. One of the bones takes the shape of a saddle (think a horse saddle) and on top of that would be the rider. Think about it like that but imagine it being the bones. One bone curves outward and the other curves inward. Look up the joint carpometacarpal (thumb) to get a better view. This joint allows back and forth and side to side. This would also be a synovial joint. When it comes to joints as you know bone on bone is never a good thing. There is always something between the bones making the joint. - Hyaline Cartilage (Articular Cartilage) : absorb compression, provides support, smooth surface that allow tissues to slide easily over each other,, elastic, no blood vessels or nerves. Of course since we are talking about the joints you will find this located at the end of long bones and the ends of ribs. - Joint Cavity (Synovial Cavity) : the space between the synovial joint. The joint cavity is filled with synovial fluid which lubricates the joint. - Synovial Membrane : (connective tissue that) covers the joint, secretes synovial fluid - Articular Capsule : loose connective tissue that surrounds the synovial membrane by attaching to the bone. Helps reduce friction, absorb shock, and helps hold connected bones together - Ligament : attach bones to bones - Tendon : attach muscles to bones If ROM (Range of Motion) was unlimited then our heads would probably be able to spend around like the girl from the Exorcist. Luckily we do have ROM and have three things that limit our ROM 1. Ligaments being too loose or tight 2. Depends on how the bone is structured. You cannot do the all same movements with your elbow that you would with your coxal joint. 3. If there is too much tissue such as fat or muscle at certain places. An example that Weiss used in class was if his bicep was huge he would not be able to touch his shoulder. Joint Actions ● Flexion - bending of the joint (bend your knee) ● Extension - extending or straightening the joint, 0 degrees (straighten your knee) ● Hyperextension - is going slightly above regular extension or anatomical position ( ● Abduction - going away from the body ( allow your arm to hang, now lift your arm) ● Adduction - going towards the body ( now allow your arm to go back to your side) ● Circumduction - Dr.Weiss said we will not go heavily into details but know that it means basically making a circle. You are able to use abduction, adduction, flexion, and extension ● Medial (Internal) Rotation - rotational movement towards the midline (place elbow to your side, move your hand towards the midline) ● Lateral (External) Rotation - rotational movement away from the midline (your hand is now towards your midline, now move your hand away from the midline and past the original position.) ● Plantar Flexion (ankle extension) - bending the foot down ● Dorsi flexion (ankle flexion) - bending the foot upward ● Inversion (Foot Supination) - turning the foot inward (pigeon-toed) ● Eversion (Foot Pronation) - turning the foot outward (toe-out or out-toeing) ● Supination (Radioulnar Joints) - palm facing upward or anterior ● Pronation (Radioulnar joints) - palm facing downward or posterior ● Transverse (Horizontal) Abduction - moving the shoulder away from the midline ● Transverse (Horizontal) Adduction - moving the shoulder towards the midline ● Elevation - rising of, example shoulder shrug ● Depression - lowering of, example dropping the shoulders ● Scapular Abduction (Protraction) - scapular is moving away from the spine ● Scapular Adduction (Retraction) - scapular is moving towards the spine ● Upward Rotation - glenoid fossa (the part of the shoulder that receives the head of the humerus, it resembles a socket) moving upward and away from the midline/spinal column (move your arms above your head) ● Downward Rotation - glenoid fossa is moving downward and towards the midline (lowering your arms) ● Radial Flexion - abduction movement of the wrist. Moving your wrist towards your thumb ● Ulnar Flexion - adduction of the wrist. Moving your wrist towards your pinky finger ● Opposition (carpo-metacarpal joint) of thumb - the thumb is flexion towards the palm or finger. The thumb touching the fingers or palm of the same hand. It allows us to grasp things like cups. Skeletal Muscle Configuration The fiber pattern and number articulation crossed are two different skeletal muscle configurations we will go over. 1.) Fiber Patterns are categorized by Fusiform and Pennate. ● Fusiform Muscle : muscle with long fibers, the middle of the muscle is wide and the ends are narrow and attach to tendons. The bicep is an example of this muscle as well as the hamstrings. They are able to produce a greater range of movement. ● Pennate Muscle : muscle with short fibers that attach to a tendon. It has a feather like shape and can create force or power. - Unipennate Muscles : all of the muscle fibers are in the same direction or on the same side of the tendon - Bipennate Muscle : muscle fibers are on both sides of the tendon - Multipennate Muscle : muscle fibers are running between the tendon since there is more than one tendon. 2.) Number Articulations Crossed : muscles move only at joints they cross ● Uniarticular Muscles : the muscles only crosses one joint. This muscle is always reliable, as Dr.Weiss would say this would be the friend you want to have, the one you can count on. Whenever you need to move a joint this muscle will always help you. ● Biarticular Muscles : the muscle crosses two joints. This is the friend that only help when it is right, they are not that reliable. Four Methods Used to Study Muscle Function 1. Dissection : used on cadavers (dead body), able to see the muscles and tendons plus the joints they attach to or cross, but the joints actions has the chance of being unusual since it is on a cadaver. If you do not have a cadaver then you can use different models similar to it. [I use an app call, Imuscle2, it was $1.99 in the google play store. It shows the skeleton, the muscles, and exercises used with the muscles. Shows you which muscles are involved with different movements. I recommend it to help with this class ] 2. Palpation : determining muscle actions through touching and feeling of course with consent. You should be able to feel the muscles contract. The thing about palpation is the fact that you will not be able to feel the deep muscles which are located closer to bone 3. Omission : the inability to use certain muscle(s) because they are paralyzed. Depending on where the muscle has lost function, the muscles around that lost muscle can take on their role or function. Our bodies adapt to things so the muscles around the paralyzed muscle can play the role of that muscle, but it's bad for analyzing the muscles. 4. Okay I would have had these notes out last night but I wanted you to have a very clear understanding here so I e-mailed Professor Weiss so he could help me word what I wrote to make sense.... Electromyography (EMG) : The nervous and muscular systems work together to cause muscular activity. Initially, a wave-like depolarization of the efferent neuron reflects the transmission of a neural impulse. Once it reaches the muscle, those motor units whose efferent axons were depolarized will likewise be depolarized such that a cascade of events will occur resulting in the contraction of those specific motor units. EMG detects MAP (Muscle Action Potential) which is the finding/recording the of electrical currents using surface electrodes or indwelling electrodes. Increasing electrical activity indicates increasing motor unit recruitment. The more force and/or speed required to perform a task, the more motor units are recruited. EMGs are different for each person and so are not comparable between people. The reasons for this could be due to layers of fat or the individual electrical resistance. Overall this method is considered to be the best way to study muscle function. There are two categories of EMG 1. Surface (skin) electrodes : the sticky things the place on your skin. Since the samples are large they give a better number of muscles of MAP. It does not work too well when it comes to deep muscles, it picks up muscles from a different location than where we want (Ex:I want to look at the biceps but it picks up the muscles in the tricep), leads or head of the muscle I believe may get in the way, and the noise may cause problems since the electrodes can pick up the sound waves. 2. Indwellling : are inserted into the muscles, using needles and/or fine-wire. Unlike the surface the indwelling can measure deep muscles and fine-wire is comfortable, you will be able to move around without a lot pain. The bad thing is infection which is a possible since the skin has been broken, the sampling is smaller than the surface electrodes, usually done in a clinical/medical setting, and once inserted the needle can be uncomfortable unlike the fine-wire. Muscular Contractions 1. Static : Isometric Contractions has no change in muscle length 2. Dynamic : change in muscle length - Isoinertial : variable velocity and constant load (resistance). This means that the speed can change but the load remains the same. ~ Dynamic Constant External Resistance (DCER) ~Isotoneitaotn) 3. Isokinetic : doing a movement or joint action at a constant or fixed set velocity. Isokinetic is accommodating or adapting to resistance at a constant velocity. Velocity is a how fast something moves in a direction. 4. Variable Resistance :modifying isoinertial through leverages, chains, elastic bands, or other analogous means. This means we are using different amounts of resistance to a muscle(s) while working out. There are two actions you must know, Concentric action and Eccentric action. Concentric action is the shortening of a muscle while Eccentric action is the lengthening of a muscle. In both actions the muscle(s) will be under load. An example of this would be doing a bicep curl. When you lift the dumbbell you are using concentric action and when you lower the dumbbell to the initial starting point that is eccentric action. This a very very important concept because once we go into the exercise movements and the Final Exam this will be very important. DO NOT CONFUSE THE TWO, THIS WILL BE A LIFESAVER. If I can I will edit these notes so you can have the information on Simple Machines and maybe some information for the next few slides we will go over in class. As always give me feedback so I can help make the notes better to help you out more.


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