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Organic Chem Notes Week 1

by: Greg Notetaker

Organic Chem Notes Week 1 Chem 225

Marketplace > New York University > Chemistry > Chem 225 > Organic Chem Notes Week 1
Greg Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes include a partial review of general chemistry and a first step into organic chem
Organic Chemistry
Professor Jones
Class Notes
Organic Chemistry




Popular in Organic Chemistry

Popular in Chemistry

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Greg Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 225 at New York University taught by Professor Jones in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 177 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at New York University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Organic Chemistry Notes Week 1 There are 4 quantum numbers to describe electrons: n, l, m s l,  Note: No 2 electrons can have the same 4 quantum numbers in an atom (Pauli exclusion) n = principle quantum number = energy level of electron; equal to an integer designating its level such as 1, 2, 3... o Dependent upon nuclear distance o The further it is from the nucleus, the higher the n value and the higher its energy l = angular quantum number = shape of electron cloud; equal to an integer limited by (n­1) i.e. if  n = "1", l must be "0" and if n = "2", l can be "0" or "1" Note: If l = 0, the orbital will be spherical...If l = 1, the orbital will be "dumb­bell shaped" m = magnetic quantum number = describes electron cloud orientation; equal to all values from –l l to 1 m (s  = designates electron spin; denoted as a ­½ or a +½  EXAMPLE: Hydrogen (H) n = 1; l = 0; m = 0, s = ½ l Note: Electrons will always occupy the lowest energy level possible *Hund's Rule­ the electron configuration with the least number of unpaired electron spins  contains the lowest energy level *Aufbau principle­ orbitals must be filled in from the lowest in energy to the highest Understand that electrons are confined to certain regions of space at a time that are in specific  shapes  "s" orbitals (not s for spin) are the base level for all electrons in any given energy level  (n) o They are spherically shaped "p" orbitals are the aforementioned "dumbbell shaped" and electrons occupy this sublevel after filling "s" orbitals; they have 3 possible orientations (x, y, z) "d" orbitals follow "p" orbitals and begin to take unique geometries having 5 possible  orientations and are followed by "f" orbitals that form even more peculiar shapes with 7  orientation possibilities Since this is organic chem... For elemental carbon:  n = 2; l = 1; m = l1, 0, 1; s = ½ & ­½  2 2 1 1 Electron configuration for its outermost electron is equivalent to 1s 2s 2p 2p x y  Carbon contains 6 total electrons, 4 in its outermost layer (valence) 1  Outermost electron is designated as "2p " becausy it is more energetically favorable to  place an electron in an alternate orientation o The electron is also given the same "spin" as the "2p electron so that it would be x impossible for it to cross over into and pair with that electron, forming the less  energetically favorable "2p " 2 x *Definitions and fact­checking performed with the textbook: Jones, Maitland, Jr., and Steven Fleming A. Organic Chemistry. 5th ed. New York: W. W.  Norton, 2014. Print.


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