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Psychology 1101 Ch3 Notes

by: Hanna Notetaker

Psychology 1101 Ch3 Notes Psyc 1101

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Psychology (PSYC) > Psyc 1101 > Psychology 1101 Ch3 Notes
Hanna Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes include the material we went over in class and the material from the readings.
Elementary Psycology
Kara A. Dyckman
Class Notes
Psychology, psych, psych1101, Chapter3
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Psych 1101: Chapter 3-Sensation and Perception Sensation >Stimuli from the environment is received by sensory receptors and sensory organs Perception >This is how you personally organize, interpret, and transform stimuli into something meaningful. >This process is subjective: The situation you are in, your response to pain compared to others >It is the combination of what you’re experiencing and your memories, thought, and feelings. The Basics: Transduction Stimuli is translated into  Stimuli from the environment chemical and electrical signals (neurons) Sensation The Nervous system Transduction processes neural signals The sensations are Perception assigned meaning Data Based VS Knowledge Based >Data- Based Processing (also known as Bottom-Up Processing) -This is how the brain takes in and processes information from outside stimuli >Knowledge-Based Processing (also known as Top-Down Processing) -This is where you use your own knowledge and your own experiences to understanding sensory information Measuring Human Sensation >Absolute threshold -The minimum amount of stimulus you are able to detect 50% of the time -Ex: Hearing Tests- The same decibel of sound is played multiple times to see whether or not you can hear it 50% of the time Sensory Adaptation >Sensory receptors stop responding to stimuli because they become less sensitive to the stimuli >Ex: Perfume, the temperature of the room/pool, the ticking of a clock, etc Difference Thresholds >You respond when the constant stimuli changes >The minimum difference between 2 stimuli is noticed 50% of the time >Weber’s Law -Just Noticeable Difference (JND) -A ratio -Used for weight, vision, auditory, etc: There must be a 2% difference in order to detect it Signal Detection Theory >This is how sensitive your criteria are to determine what is and what isn’t there (what you heard or felt)  Actual State Yes No Yes Hit False Alarm Think No Miss Correct Rejection Vision >Our eyes detect light to see >Light: Electromagnetic energy waves >Wavelength: the distance between two waves >Humans can only see wavelengths that are within the visible light spectrum (~400nm-700nm) Features of Color 1. Hue >The color you see depends on the wavelength 2. Brightness >This depends on the amplitude (the distance from the midpoint of the wavelength to the peak or trough) 3. Saturation >This is the purity of the wavelength -How many different wavelengths make up the wavelength/color you see Perception of Color >Cornea: the clear covering over your eyes -Shields the eyes from damage by dust, bacteria -Focuses incoming light waves >Pupil: the dark coloring of your eye; the dark hole >Iris: the color of your eye; it is a muscle -When it is dark, your iris relaxes, which causes the pupil to widen in order for more light to go inside the eye -When it is bright, the iris muscles constrict, causing the pupil to get smaller to limit the light coming into the eye. >Lens: this bends the light -Focuses incoming light (like the cornea) -Accommodation: the lens can change shape to adjust to images that are near and far >Retina: contains two types of photoreceptors (specialized neurons): cones and rods -Cones: allow us to see in color and observe fine details -Rods: extremely sensitive; will respond to the small amount of light -Light reaches the photoreceptors, which creates an action potential and synapses to the bipolar cells which then synapse to the ganglion cells -Bipolar cells and ganglion cells are specialized neurons >Optic nerve: a bundle of ganglion cell axons that lead to the visual cortex >Blind spot: an area that lacks rods and cones >Fovea: contains a high concentration of cones -In light, it allows you to see fine details Visual Pathway Dark and Light Adaptations >Dark Adaptations: your eyes adjust to brightness after being in a dark environment for a period of time >Light Adaptations: your eyes adjust to the dark after being in a bright environment for a period of time >Cones are more responsive to dark adaptation >Cones and rods undergo chemical changes when adapting to the presence or absence of light Coding for Object in Our Environment >Simple Stimuli -Use feature detectors (neurons in the visual cortex that code for simple stimuli) -Angles, lines, and movement >Complex Stimuli (ex: faces) -Patterns of activation of different types of neurons Color Vision >Trichromatic Theory -Three types of cones are excited by different wavelengths of light -Red, Green, Blue -Any other color is a combination of the three cones >Color blindness (color deficiency): the loss or damage of cone(s) >Afterimage: an image remains in your visual field after the stimulus is gone >Opponent-Process Theory -A special group of neurons respond to opposite colors -Ex: Red-Green, Blue-Yellow


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