Week 2 notes Aug 29-sept 2
Week 2 notes Aug 29-sept 2 PSYC 265
Popular in Drugs and Behavior
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Sehnert on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 265 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Stoltenberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Drugs and Behavior PSYC 265 Monday Aug 29 I. Psychological theories a. Intrapersonal factors (within a person) i. Sensitivity or tolerance ii. Personality –liking or dislike iii. Motivation –med school, etc. iv. Genetic factors b. Interpersonal factors (between people) i. Parents –monitoring intake ii. Peers –“guilty by association” iii. Media iv. Romantic partners –if partner using, you use more II. Social learning theory –Al Bandura a. Woman interacting with doll, abusing it b. Half women saw this, other half didn’t c. Kids who watched video did same behaviors as woman in video III. Social Norms a. Norms –rules to regulate behavior in groups i. “We don’t swear at this house” ii. Explicit or implicit b. Social norms in context of substance use i. When and where used ii. How much is acceptable iii. How to people act when under the influence c. Learn at a young age, mostly from family d. Might notice something different at friends house e. Different norms based on how you were raised f. Views influenced by those you hang out with (all friends drink so you think everyone drinks) g. STUDY –Alcohol schema acquisition in preschoolers: differences between children of alcoholics and children of nonalcoholics i. Ask children what is in the glass in different contexts ii. Most children by 6 can identify at least 1 type of alcoholic drink iii. Know dads are more likely to drink alcohol drinks than moms iv. Kids with alcoholic dad are more likely to say dad is drinking alcoholic drink than non alc v. Have to start pretty early to prevent substance abuse IV. Expectancies a. How substance affects YOU and your experience and behavior b. Positive or negative c. Learn expectancies from others before ever using d. Change after experiences e. Independent of pharmacological effect –act drunk after 1 sip, placebo affect f. Real but maybe not due to drug, may not be aware of personal expectancies g. Alcohol expectancies questionnaire –yes or no answers, ask adults and children i. Children who were in treatment had higher positive expectancies about drinking, may be a risk factor ii. DISTINGUISH BETWEEN NORMS AND EXPECTANCIES ON EXAM iii. Df;la WEDNESDAY Aug 31 I. Family and peer influences a. Deviant peers –more time with them increases risk of substance use b. Parental monitoring i. Do your parents know where you are? ii. Do they know what you’re going? iii. Do they know who you are with? iv. Low level is that they didn’t know where very often v. Look at relationships between these things c. Results –amount of parental monitoring doesn’t matter if strong relationship with parent i. Family influence doesn’t matter as much when get older, but a lot when young ii. As a parent –limit who they can hang out with when young iii. Strengthen family relationships to reduce substance use – family-based interventions II. Different kinds of alcoholism a. If there are different kinds, need to treat them differently b. Driven by medical establishment c. Early onset –different genetic profiles d. Can be different types for all substances addicts e. Look at different characteristics f. There is probably different types of alcoholism g. Age of onset appears to have indication on type h. Earlier onset seems to have more problems later on III. Intrapersonal theories a. Biological vulnerability models i. Enhanced Reinforcement model 1. Reinforcement means classical and operant conditioning 2. Sensitivity to how they are attracted to it again (reinforcement) 3. Resistance to intoxicating effects 4. More use increases reward with less impairment ii. Negative Affect model 1. Temperamental factors leading to negative affect along with stress 2. Use drug for self medication IV. Biopsychosocial models a. SUD –substance use disorder V. Mediators and moderators a. Concepts can be tested in new contexts i. “X causes Y” –statement of direct causation ii. “How does X cause Y” –mediation iii. “When does X cause Y and when does it not?” –moderation b. Mediation i. Underlying cause ii. Family history Genes/Environment AUD (alcohol use disorder) iii. Don’t know underlying cause iv. Factor Mediator variable Outcome variable v. WILL NEED TO KNOW DIFF BETWEEN MEDIATION AND MODERATION c. Moderation i. Variable changes direction or strength relationship between predictor and outcome ii. Does coping style change how people react to substance?? iii. “Does relationship between temp and how it feels change due to wind?” FRIDAY Sept 2 I. Take quiz 1. Covers same material as Exam but might be different style II. Extra credit day 1 III. Measuring alcohol use a. Quantity –how much typically consumed on a drinking day b. Frequency –how often you drink c. Quantity frequency index i. Multiply the 2 =total volume of consumption ii. Misses some stuff – 1. Drink 1 drink every day 2. 15 beers 2 days =same amount (binge drinking) d. Frequency of intoxication i. Increases chances of something bad happening e. Binge = 5 or more drinks on one occasion (men) of 4 (women) in about 2hr (or reaching .08% BAC) f. Heavy episodic drinking = 5 or more binges per month g. Maximum quantity in 24hr = “max drinks” i. Good question to ask to get a general sense of drinking ii. On survey- self-report so we don’t say exactly the truth or can’t remember IV. The standard drink a. Standard drink has 0.5oz of pure ethanol i. Same chemical structure for all drinks b. Beer – 3-5% ABV i. 12oz of 4.2% ABV =0.50oz alcohol c. Wine – 12-14% ABV i. 4.2 oz of 12% ABV = 0.50 oz alcohol ii. 3.6 oz of 14% ABV = 0.50 oz alcohol d. Hard liquor – 40-50% ABV, 80-100 proof) i. 1.25 oz of 40% ABV = 0.50alcohol ii. 1.0 oz of 50% ABV = 0.50 oz alcohol e. How to calculate # standard drinks in beverage (need to know how to do) i. Calc volume of alcohol in given beverage: Percent alcohol by volume x # oz = volume of alcohol 1. .5 ABV x 16oz = .8oz alcohol ii. Calc # standard drinks: Volume alcohol / volume of alcohol in a standard drink 1. .8oz/.5oz = 1.6 standard drinks f. Four locos (aka “Six pack in a can”) -23.5 oz at 12% ABV 2.82 oz ethanol 5.64 standard drinks V. Tobacco and illicit drug use a. Total consumption -# cigarettes smoked over time b. Doesn’t account for i. Temporary patterns ii. Different smoking inhalation styles (puffs, volume, depth, how long) iii. Type of cigarette (filter, tar level, nicotine level, menthol) iv. Good question about nicotine dependence –“How long do you wait to smoke when you get up?” c. Issues with measuring illicit drug use i. No “standard” dose ii. Different strains of marijuana have different potencies iii. Some drugs are “cut” with inert ingredient to reduce potency iv. Self-report may be less reliable 1. Wont know actual dose 2. Less truthful because it’s illegal v.
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