Psych 1101, Week 2 Notes
Psych 1101, Week 2 Notes PSYCH 1101 C
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PSYCH 1101 C
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Cole on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1101 C at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Kristy Sorenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Psychology Week 2/Ch. 1 3 Main levels of analysis: Biopsychosocial Approach – looks at all 3 to really understand the phenomenon. Biological influences (ex: Eating disorder) Psychological Influences – internal things (thoughts/feelings) Social-Cultural Influences – beginning of Psychology they ignored these influences. These influences influence what we do. The Need for Psychological Science Humans have a bias Humans cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense. Intuition: we do not know for sure, we just assume Hindsight Bias- looking into the past, and should have known that was going to happen. “I knew it all along” Overconfidence- think they can do more than they can. Perceiving order in random events – trying to see “order” when there is no order (example: horoscopes) Scientific Attitude Curiosity- want to know why. Skepticism- not believing someone just because they say it is true, need evidence to support it. Critical thinking- series of steps you take to help you through any bias. Humility- if the data shows you’re wrong, you have to accept you made a mistake. The Scientific Method (type of critical thinking) Observation- observe surroundings to make a hypothesis/ test. Hypotheses- a guess/ prediction that is very specific. Theory- reflection of hypotheses, which explains a phenomenon. Replication- repeat same study but changing it in a slightly different way. Operational definition- exactly how you measured a variable. A Good Theory… Effectively Organizes- Makes sense Leads to clear predictions- clear hypothesis Often stimulates research- constantly create more questions May be replicated Types of Studies: Case Studies- Examines one individual in depth. Naturalistic Observations- Record behavior natural environment. Surveys and interviews- examines many cases in less depth. Random sampling – everyone from the population has an equal chance of being selected for sample. Inference- taking results from sample and applying it to the population. Correlation- measure of how closely related 2 factors vary together, or how well you can predict a change in 2 one from observing a change in the other. (100 degrees outside = sweat) Correlation Coefficient: Positive- 0 and +1.00 Negative- 0 and -1.00 Illusory Correlation- 2 variables and it looks like they are but they are not. Regression towards the mean- sample mean either increases or decreases, if you take another sample the mean if going to be either closer of farther from the mean. Experimentation: (use study as a general term) Variables Independent- anything the researcher changes, it changes the dependent. Dependent- anything measured, it changes because of the independent variable. Confounding- could cause a dependent variable, but needs to be taken out of the experiment. 3
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