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Chapter 11 in General Chemistry

by: Lauren Dennis

Chapter 11 in General Chemistry Chemistry 1212

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Chemistry > Chemistry 1212 > Chapter 11 in General Chemistry
Lauren Dennis
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About this Document

These notes are on phases, forces, diagrams, and properties amongst molecules.
Chemistry 1212
Dr. Doyle
Class Notes
properties, Molecules and Compounds, phase diagrams




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Dennis on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 1212 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Doyle in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 1212 in Chemistry at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 09/02/16
Bonds  Electrostatic: the ability of an object to acquire an electron o Holds matter together o Trend on the Periodic Table:  Increases going down the columns  Increases going across the rows  Phases: solid, liquid, and gas o Spacing between molecules  Gas > Solid > Liquid  Forces: o London (induced dipole)  Every molecule have these forces  Very weak  Larger molecular weight = more electrons  Larger the molecule = Stronger the force  BP determined by molecular weight  Ex. CH4, CH3CH, CH3CH2CH3  CH3CH2CH3 > CH3CH > CH4 o If they are similar Molecules  As the force increases so does the boiling point, bp  Lowers the density  Lowers the melting point  Dipole – Dipole Interactions o Occurs only between polar molecules  Water or H2O o Ex. CH4, CH3F, CF4  CH4: NONPOLAR  CH3F: POLAR  Dipole- Dipole  High BP and MP  CF4: NONPOLAR  London  Polar bonds, but are symmetrical  Van der Waals o The category of forces  Include: London and Dipole-Dipole o Short Range of Forces o Very Weak o Very few interactions between molecules  Hydrogen Bonding o Similar to dipole- dipole o Not a “real” bond o Need: H-F, C-H, C-O, O-H  Hydrogen Bond Donor o Lone Electron Pair  Hydrogen Bond Acceptor H o Ex. CH3FOH to NH3 H  N H H C O H H  Ion Dipole o Strongest forces o Only found in solutions o The molecule “dissolves”  Breaks down to their original components  Ex NaCl dissolved into H2O o Na+ and Cl- o Ionic Solution o “Like dissolves Like”  Polar with Nonpolar: Oil/H2O o Need an ion/dipole: ionic substance o Larger the charge = the greater the interaction  ION > HYDROGEN > DIPOLE- DIPOLE > DISPERSION (LONDON)  PROPERTIES o Boiling point: the vapor pressure = the atmospheric pressure o Melting point: the temperature at which a given solid will melt o Surface tension: energy required to increase surface area o Heat of vaporization: the energy required to change a liquid into a gas o Vapor pressure: the pressure of a vapor when in contact with a liquid or a solid o Visocity: resistance to float  Lower molecular forces = tend to float  Motor Oil o Capillary action: ability to flow upward  Forces between tube and substances  Example of the Heat of Vaporization: o Heat (q) in KJ to vaporize 2.58 kg of H2O  Bp = 100 C  Heat of Vaporization = 40.7 KJ/mol q= Heat of Vaporization x moles(n) (40.67KJ/mol)(143mol) = q q= 5820 KJ  Temperature Change: o Change in Temperature = (q)(SH)(m)  q= heat  SH= specific heat  m= mass  Change in Phase o Change in Vaporization = - Change in Condensation o Change in Fusion - - Change in Freezing o Change in Sublimation = (Change in Fusion) + (Change in vap.) o Change in Disposition = _____ - (Change in Sublimation)  Phase Diagrams  Ga Properties MP s BP Surface Visocity Vapor Heat of Tension Pressure Vaporization London Lowest Lowest Lowest Lowest Highest Lowest Dipole – Lower Lower Lower Lower Higher Lower Dipole Hydrogen Low Low Low Low High Low Bonding Ga Ion Dipole Highest Highest Highest Highest Lowest highest s Liqui Soli d d  Dynamic Equilibrium: a flat line; no change in temperature o Solid – Liquid o Liquid – Gas  Solid is found at lower temperatures  Gas is found at higher temperatures  Solid – Liquid: melting point  Liquid – Gas: boiling point  Liqui Soli d d Ga s o Where the three lines meet: TRIPLE POINT o Where it goes from solid to liquid: N. MELTING POINT o Where it goes from liquid to gas: N. BOILING POINT o CRITICAL POINT: the liquid to solid phase does not exist; the molecule becomes cloudy  It is at the tip of the line dissecting from liquid to gas  Clausius – Clapeyron Equation: o Ln(Pvap) = ((-Heat of Vaporization)/(R))(1/T) + lnB  What is the equation?  Y = mx + b o Ln(P2/P1) = ((-Heat of vap.)/(R))((1/T2)-(1/T1))  All pressures in either torr or atm  All temperatures in Kelvin  All Heat of vaporization in J/mol  R = 8.314 J/molK  Cubics: o Simple/ Primitive  1 atom total  1/8 of the atom is in each corner of the square o Body Center  2 atoms total  1 in the center and 1/8 in each corner o Face Center  4 atoms total  ½ atom on each face and 1/8 in each corner


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