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Sociological Deviance week 2

by: Lindsey Notetaker

Sociological Deviance week 2 SOCL 3501

Marketplace > Louisiana State University > Sociology > SOCL 3501 > Sociological Deviance week 2
Lindsey Notetaker
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These notes cover all 3 lectures in week 2 and will be on exam 1
Sociology of Deviance
G. Stevenson
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 3501 at Louisiana State University taught by G. Stevenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Deviance in Sociology at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 09/02/16
WEEK 2 SOCIOLOGY 3501 TEST 1 NOTES CHAPTER 2  Positivistism: the application of the scientific method to the study of something o Absolutism  Deviance is real. It is different from conventional behavior. The people who engage in it are different from conventional people. Atavism- criminals were evolutionary throwbacks, Lombroso’s theory. Although we don’t count teeth or measure arm length anymore, we still look at DNA to see if criminals have something different o Determinism  Our behavior to some extent is determined by forces (society) outside of the individual.  You can play your cards however you want, but society deals them- not everyone has the same opportunities, our social status influences our choices. o Objectivism  Somewhat removed from your subjects. We are never going to be 100% objective; our feelings influence what we study. If deviance is real, then we can study it in an objective way  Quantitative data (numbers, rates) is an objective way of doing research.  Constructionism o Relativism  No behavior is inherently good or bad. Societies have to define what is good/ bad.  Context can change whether or not something is deviant.  Viagra example o Subjectivism  It is important to understand deviance from the actors point of view. How they define what they have done  Example: Katz interviewed convicted murderers and robbers. After hearing what they have to say, they saw it very differently than society did. It wasn’t robbery or murder; the victims asked for it and someone should have stopped them o Voluntarism  The idea of free will; people act voluntarily  2 people act in the same way, why does one get labelled a deviant and the other does not?  High consensus vs. low consensus o High consensus deviance: there is a high agreement that something is deviant. Better for positivistism research o Low consensus: low level of agreement that something is deviant. Better for constructionism research  Strain Theories o Merton Strain (or Anomie theory): this is the foundation for all of the other strain theories we are going to talk about. Doesn’t try to explain white-collar crime, this is the biggest criticism of this theory.  Macrolevel theory: trying to explain why certain groups have high rates of deviance (class levels, countries, gender)  Wants to explain why the lower class has higher rates of crime than the higher groups  Argued that society can be structured in such a way that crime and deviance can be produced.  Model of theory  Success goals: societies define what our success goals are. They tell us what we are supposed to strive to achieve. Also says these success goals are going to be uniform throughout (everyone is socialized into the same success goals). Example: economic success o Women can have flexible success goals. Men are still more heavily invested in the economic success goals because society tells them to be.  Blocked means: society tells us what the most appropriate means are to achieve these goals. Example: education and good jobs. When it comes to the means, not everyone has the same access; this is where the problem starts to happen. Example: public school o Doesn’t explain white-collar crime  Strain: the gap between the goals and the means. People want to achieve the goals, but it is more difficult. Example: poor people paying for college  Anomie: breakdown of norms. “normlessness”. If we have a weakening of the normative system, we will most likely see more deviance.  Deviance: the more we believe in rules, the more likely we are to follow them. When we start to question rules, we are more likely to become deviant.  Modes of adaptation: Modes of goals means explanations adaptation Conformity + + Most common form of adaptation Innovation + - Making money by prostitution, embezzlement, etc. Doesn’t always have to be criminal. Example: gambling Retreatism - - Merton described these as hobos; societal drop outs, they exist among us, but are not a part of society. Could include homeless people, but have to be careful because some of them work. Example: hardcore alcoholics, drug attics. Ritualism - + People who are just going through the motions but have lost sight of their goals. Example: people who stay in college for a LONG time because they keep switching their major. Rebellion +/- +/- Oklahoma City Bomber (Timothy McVay) belonged to a militia group. Militia groups often want to take down the federal government. However, rebellion does not have to be violent. Example: Hippies; rejected mainstream society. o Status Frustration- Cohen  Status: prestige among your peers  Argues with Merton’s theory that people commit crime for money. There is a lot of crime committed that has nothing to do with crime. Kids commit crime that has nothing to do with money in order to gain status.  Measuring rods: this is how kids are going to be evaluated in school based o middle class values  Schools are middle class institution that reflect middle class norms/values. This means lower class kids are also judged in middle class values in school; they are at a disadvantage. They have never been socialized into middle class values at home. Schools in low income areas are still middle class institutions. In addition to how kids perform academically, they are also judged on their behavior (manners, parent’s behavior, attendance). Middle class kids are at an advantage.  Reaction formation: reaction to the status frustration, youth gangs are formed. Not necessarily violent.  The kids that are at a disadvantage in school for their own “gangs” where they have their own measures of status. Because they feel rejected by the teachers/ schools, they may become really disrespectful towards the teachers, vandalize the school, fighting, cutting class, etc. This gets them status among their peers  Cohen developed 3 different paths that these kids may go down, only 1 leads to a life of crime. o Differential illegitimate opportunity theory- Cloward and Ohlin  3 gangs: different types will develop in different areas  Criminal  Stereotypical idea of what we think of gangs. They commit criminal acts in order to make money. Highly structured and organized.  Conflict  So poor, people moving in and out so much, completely disorganized. Achieve status through violence. Reputation is extremely important and they have to be protected  Retreatist  Hardcore drug attics and alcoholics. Double losers; they couldn’t cut it in the criminal or conflict gangs. They have no goals  Not everyone has the same illegitimate opportunities  Example: cannot be a successful street prostitute in a rural area, to be successful, they would have to put themselves on craigslist. The illegitimate opportunities will shape what kind of prostitute you will be.


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