Art History 2, Week 3 Notes
Art History 2, Week 3 Notes ARTS 1720
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTS 1720 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Katherine Arpen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Art History 2 in Arts at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
August 29-September 2, 2016 (Week 3) Dr. Katherine Arpen ARTS 1720 Gothic Churches West façade of Royal Portal (Chartres Cathedral) - Relief sculpture, tympanum layout: - From the left to the right is the virgin birth, Jesus seated, and the ascension of Christ. - The jambs has historiated capitals that tell scenes from the lives of Mary and Jesus - The pillars were the kings and queens of Hebrew Bible dressed in the royal robes of that time - Made them seem divinely connected, halo, floating feet, size, above the ground. - Seem noble by their posture: broad plains of their face, no emotions (rigid), aren’t looking down (not concentrated on earthly things). Column-like, upholding structures of the church (symbolic). Intention of the artist is less important than your ability to find a symbolic meaning. Early gothic façade: Chartres Cathedral High gothic façade: Reims Cathedral - Rose window in the tympanum instead, not just relief sculpture - More symmetrical, porches over the portal push out and make the portal deeper - West façade: “fanciest” end of the church because the altar is on the east side. There are different architectures in a single church because they take so long to build – therefore different styles of sculpture by different sculpting teams Visitation (1230) - Back to the style of Ancient Rome (intricate robes, deep folds) - They also stand in a way that is distinctly Roman: contraposto, meaning weight is placed entirely on one leg, which gives a greater sense of naturalism - Faces are also Roman Annunciation (1240) - Austere - Resemble jamb figures that are heavy - No divots in robes - Solemn faces 1 Court style (1250): - Made for the king - Tight, curly hairstyle with head tilted - Elaborately lined wings - “S” shaped bodies with elongated necks and small heads - Curving lines and would have originally been painted Court style (in churches): - Elongated forms, delicacy and elegance - Sainte Chappelle (made for Louis IX): - No ambulatory or second story - No transept or side aisles which increases the feeling of verticality along with the opulent “ceiling to floor” stained glass, which relates to Jesus and the ancestors of Christ. - Implemented the king as well which linked him to the divine (divine right) - Private chapel and relic sight (crown of thorns) - The chapel itself looks like gothic reliquaries called reliquary shrines. Cathedral: Siena Cathedral Location (country): (Duomo), Siena, Italy Dates: 1215-1263 Overall Plan The overall plan is what we’ve been going over lately, with the nave, side aisles, and a transept to form that “cross” shape. Vault system The overall vaulting system is gothic rib vaulting, but is still a bit rounded, which is classic of Italian churches because Romanesque arches were the Italians’ “architectural heritage” Parts of nave There are only two stories, a rounded-arch elevation arcade and a clerestory Vertical supports Corinthian piers, interesting striped pattern (interior) Windows Stained glass clerestory and choir window. Very few on the ground level but made up for by the clerestory on the second floor. Façade Overall gothic style with pointed arches and symmetry. Three portals but aren’t pointed – still rounded. Elaborate sculpture, but more bare on the portals than common gothic cathedrals. Gold- 2 leaf elements. Striped tower like pillars inside. Screen front (front is wider than the actual side aisles). Buttresses Small pier buttresses, no (visible) flying buttresses because of the Romanesque elements needed to be upheld by buttresses – small because height was not the goal. Additional features Gold-leafing on the exterior. Stripes on interior and exterior. Mosaic flooring. Cathedral: Salisbury Cathedral Location (country): Salisbury, England Dates: 1220-1258 Overall Plan Extended nave Vault system Gothic, rib vault Parts of nave Pointed arcade, second story gallery, and elevation clerestory. Attempts to emphasize the horizontal to draw eyes to the altar by breaking up the transverse arches, not in attempts to elongate it, but to break up the pillars in order to emphasize the horizontal. Vertical supports “Broken up” pillars (interior) Windows Clerestory Façade Pushes out instead of rising up Buttresses Flying buttresses and pier buttresses Additional features Cloister Cathedral: Church of St. Elizabeth Location (country): Marburg, Germany Dates: 1235-1283 3 Overall Plan Rounded basilica plan, looks like a trifold (German trait) Vault system Rib vaulting Parts of nave There’s no nave elevation, instead, two levels of elevation windows. Open plan of the pillars going straight from the ground to the ceiling (Hall Church). No wall barriers. Vertical supports Pillars going straight from the ground to the (interior) ceiling (Hall Church) Windows Large windows letting light flood in Façade Tall, gothic features (pointed arches) and symmetrical, but definitely not as ornate Buttresses Pier buttresses, no visible flying buttresses Additional features The door itself being decorated, not just the tympanum, not as many sculptures and ornate design Textiles and Sculpture Textiles: The Bayeaux “Tapestry” - Romanesque - Technically an embroidery (stitching onto an existing textile), not a tapestry (woven on a spool) - Linen with wool embroidery - 20 inches by 231 inches - 50 scenes, predominately of the Battle of Hastings between England and Normandy - Basic colors and forms, it’s the story that’s complex - Said to be an attempt to offer an explanation of why Normandy invaded England - Halley’s comet: bad omen - Before and after Halley’s comet contrast: King Harold and his surroundings lose sense of composure - King Harold slain by either arrow in eye or by sword/horse trampling 4 Sculpture: “Virgin and Child” - Throne of Wisdom model - Jesus = wisdom - Mary = throne - Romanesque “Virgin and Child” vs. High Gothic “Virgin and Child” (next page) Romanesque: High Gothic: th th - 12 century - 14 century - Wooden (material easier to - Silver with golden gild come by) - Elegant and graceful - Simple and austere - Gives authority by material - Gives authority by posture - Reflectiveness of gold - Stern faces, stern posture - Contraposto posture and plain robes - Shadows and light created by - Less emotion, less detail intricate and deep divots in - No connection between robes Mary and Jesus - Natural relationship between - Not an ideal of beauty mother and child - Jesus’ “manly” face is - Political (fleur de lis indicative of eternal wisdom implemented to connect French - Very heavy, brings your monarchy to the divine) eye down and rooted - Overly small heads and an ideal beauty standard - “S” shaped posture - Brings your eyes up by the flow of the figure 5
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