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BIOS 103_Week4_ClassNotes

by: Joey Petersen

BIOS 103_Week4_ClassNotes BIOS 103 Introduction to Biological Sciences

Joey Petersen
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These class notes go over all of Chapter 4, all of Chapter 5, and he beginning of Chapter 6. The rest of Chapter 6 will be uploaded at the end of this class week. :]
Introduction to Biological Sciences
Dr. Stoia
Class Notes
Biology, 103




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joey Petersen on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 103 Introduction to Biological Sciences at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Stoia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.

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Date Created: 09/02/16
CHAPTER 4: Cell Structure and Function     4.1 Cellular Level of Organization  I. Cell Theory  A. All organisms are composed of cells  B. All cells come from preexisting cells because cells are self­reproducing  C. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms  II. Cell Size  A. Small cells cover large surface area  III. Microscopes  A. Can see live specimen  B. Resolution​: distinction between two things  C. Electron microscope cannot see living specimen  4.2 Prokaryotic Cells  I. Lack a membrane­bound nucleus  II. Smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells (cells with a nucleus)  III. Structure of Prokaryotes  A. Three basic shapes  1. Spherical​: coccus  2. Rod­shaped​: bacillus  3. Spiral​: spirillum (rigid) or spirochete (flexible)  IV. Phospholipid bilayer  A. Hydrophilic heads  B. Hydrophobic tails  V. Cytoplasm  A. Nucleoid​: a region that contains the single, circular DNA molecule  B. Plasmids: ​  small accessory rings of DNA  C. Ribosomes​: tiny structures in the cytoplasm that synthesize proteins  4.3  Introduction to Eukaryotic Cells  I. Contain:  A. Membrane­bound nucleus that houses DNA  B. Specialized organelles  II. Energy­related organelles  A. Mitochondria  1. Found in plants and animal cells  B. Chloroplasts   1. Found in only plant cells  III. Structure of a Eukaryotic Cell  A. Specialized cells may have more or fewer copies of organelles, depending on their  functions  B. Vesicles move around using cytoskeletal network  1. Sacs made of membrane material  2. Protein fibers are like railroad tracks  C. Plant cells, fungi, and many protists have cell walls  1. Contain cellulose  4.4 The Nucleus and Ribosomes  I. The Nucleus  A. Command center of cell, usually near center  B. Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear envelope  1. Double layer of membrane  2. Nuclear pores permit exchange between nucleoplasm and cytoplasm  C. Contains chromatin  D. Dark nucleolus composed of rRNA  II. Ribosomes  A. Make RNA  B. Messenger RNA (brings blueprint to factory)  C. Composed of rRNA (factory)  D. Site of protein synthesis in the cell  E. DNA→mRNA→rRNA  4.5 The Endomembrane System  I. Consists of:  A. Golgi apparatus  B. Vesicles  1. Material transport between organelles of system  II. Endoplasmic Reticulum  A. Rough ER  1. Ribosomes attached  B. Smooth ER  1. No ribosomes  2. Synthesis of lipids  3. Detoxifications  4. Forms transport vesicles  III. Golgi Apparatus  A. Packaging and modifying proteins  IV. Lysosomes  A. Not found in plants  B. Contains powerful digestive enzymes and are highly acidic  1. Digest large molecules into simpler subunits  2. Recycle cellular resources  C. Engulf pathogens  D. Lysosomal storage diseases  1. Caused by defect in lysosomal enzyme  2. Tay­Sachs  3. Cell therapy restores missing enzyme to cells  4.6 Microbodies and Vacuoles  I. Peroxisomes  A. Enclose enzymes  B. Lipid metabolism  C. Similar to lysosomes  D. Catalyze reactions that produce hydrogen peroxide  1. Broken down to water and 0₂ by catalase  II. Vacuoles  A. Stores materials that we have an excess of  B. Moves materials along   C. Store toxic substances that can be used for protection  4.7 Energy­Producing Organelles  I. Chloroplasts  A. Found only in plant cells  B. Bounded by double membrane  C. Inner membrane infolded  D. Green due to chlorophyll  E. Captures light energy  F. Photosynthesis  1. Solar Energy + Carbon Dioxide + water → Carbohydrate + oxygen  II. Mitochondria  A. Found in all eukaryotic cells  B. Smaller than chloroplasts  C. Some contain ribosomes and their own DNA  D. They are involved in cellular respiration (oxygen → carbon dioxide)  E. Double membrane  4.8 The Cytoskeleton  I. Maintains the cell’s shape  II. Assists in movement of cells and organelles  III. Can be assembled or disassembled as needed  IV. Centrioles  A. Short, hollow cylinders  B. Involved in cell division, giving motion to cilia and flagella  1. Cilia​: broom like function  a) Sweep along particles  2. Flagella​: motor like function  a) Moves a cell along                  CHAPTER 5: Membrane Structure and Function     5.1 Plasma Membrane Structure and Function  I. Plasma Membrane (cell membrane)  A. Separates outside from the inside  B. Made of a phospholipid bilayer  II. Cholesterol affects the fluidity of membrane  A. Very important for the cell  III. Glycoproteins and Glycolipids  A. Glyco­: ​  sugar  IV. Transport Mechanisms  A. Diffusion: ​  Goes high to low concentration  B. Facilitated Transport  5.2 Passive Transport Across a Membrane  I. Osmosis​: diffusion of water  II. Hydrostatic Pressure​: the pressure that develops due to osmosis that pushes  III. Osmotic Pressure​: the pressure that develops due to osmosis that pulls  IV. Hypotonic​: water moves towards particles in cell and the cell ruptures (lysis) dies  V. Hypertonic​: water moves towards particles outside of the cell and cell becomes shriveled or  crenated  5.3 Active Transport Across a Membrane  I. Active Transport Across a Membrane  A. Exocytosis​: Vesicles fuse with plasma membrane and secrete contents to the outside of  the cell  B. Endocytosis​: Cells engulf substances into a pouch, which becomes a vesicle inside the  cell  C. Phagocytosis​: Large, solid material is taken in by endocytosis  D. Pinocytosis​: Vesicles form around a liquid    5.4 Modifications of Cell Surfaces  I. Adhesion Junctions: ​  Intercellular filaments  A. Desmosomes: internal cytoplasmic plaques  B. Tight Junctions: form an impermeable barrier  II. Gap Junctions​: Plasma membrane channels are joined (allows communication)   A. Important in heart muscle and smooth muscle                    CHAPTER 6: Metabolism: Energy and Enzymes     6.1 Cells and the Flow of Energy  I. Energy: the ability to do work or bring about a change  A. Kinetic Energy​: energy of motion  a) Mechanical  B. Potential Energy: stored energy  2. Chemical Energy​: the food we eat and the chemicals in it  B. Two Laws of Thermodynamics  1. First law:  a) Conservation of energy: energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can  be changed from one form to another  b) Photosynthesizing leaves capture solar energy  (1) Much of the energy dissipates as heat  2. Second law:  a) Law of entropy  b) When energy is changed from one form to another, there is a loss of  energy that is available to do work  c) No process requiring a conversion of energy is over 100% efficient  6.2 Metabolic Reactions and Energy Transformations  I. Metabolism​: the sum of cellular chemical reactions in cell  A. Reactants participate in a reaction  B. Products form as result of a reaction  II. Free energy is the amount of energy available to perform work  III. Exergonic Reactions​: products have less free energy than reactants (release energy)  A. Spontaneous  IV. Endergonic Reactions​: Products have more free energy than reactants (require energy input)  A. Not spontaneous  V. ATP​: Energy for the cells  A. Adenosine triphosphate  B. High­energy compound used to drive metabolic reactions  C. ATP not stored by cells 


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