Bio_1113_AU16_Week 2 Biology 1113
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessy Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1113 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Ball and Dr. Weinstein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Biology 1113 in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Chemistry of Life Con’t. 3.) Moderation of temperature Water is able to absorb or release large amounts of heat with a slight change in its own temperature Due to water's high specific heat Cities along the coastline are cooler than cities in the desert because the water can absorb some of that energy At night it can release the heat it absorbed during the day, so the coast can keep temperature moderated Helps organisms maintain and regulate body temperature 4.) Expansion upon freezing Frozen water is able to float on liquid water Locked into a crystallattice structure Space for air between molecules 5.) Versatility as a solvent Polarity of the molecule will help dissolve other polar molecules Water and salt Tophat Questions Water is a polar molecule because of the presence of what? Polar covalent bonds Polar covalent bonds hold a single molecule together Water has an unusually high specific heat. This is directly related to what? More heat is required to raise the temperature of the water What types of bonds must be broken to vaporize water? Hydrogen bond Carbon: The Backbone of Life Why is Carbon so special? Very complex molecule Very abundant Electron configuration Four electrons in its outer shell, allowing it to make up to four bonds Can form complex carbon skeletons Polypeptide chain DNA Sterol Able to be directly used as an energy source The arrangement matters Isomers have the same compounds with the same molecular formula but a different arrangement of atoms Different arrangement means different purpose Different biological properties Enantiomer mirror image of a molecule, but not the same thing Enantiomers are critical in the pharmaceutical industry Over the counter ibuprofen is not all in the pure form your body can use Prescription ibuprofen is all purified Takes less time to be absorbed by the body because the boy doesn't have to convert anything to a usable form Thalidomide Used to treat morning sickness in pregnant women in the 1950's Found severe birth defects Binds to DNA and keeps it from replicating Was not tested on pregnant women, so we did not accept it in the USA Used today to treat multiple myeloma and leprosy Functional Groups Participate in chemical reactions in a predictable manner Can cause drastic changes in function Be able to recognize, locate, and define the following functional groups Hydroxyl group Carboxyl group Carbonyl group Amino group Sulfhydryl group Phosphate group Methyl group Will return to in macro minerals The Structure and Function of Large Molecules These molecules make up all living things Carbohydrates Built from sugars Sweet Water soluble Based on size Names end in "ose" "saccharide" = sugar Monosaccharide Glucose = most common Most will have formulas that are a multiple of CH2O Disaccharides Two monosaccharides Sucrose (table sugar) Polysaccharides Several monosaccharides 3 carbons Aldose 4 Carbons Ketose 5 carbons Pentose 6 carbons Hexose There are 2 main reasons we make polysaccharides Storage Store excess glucose Plants store excess energy as starch Polymer of glucose molecules joined by 14 linkages Humans store excess energy as glycogen Polymer of glucose joined by 14 linkages Highly branched Allows us to store more in a smaller area Typically stored in the liver and muscles Carb loading fills up glycogen storage centers What problems can occur when you are not able to use/break down carbs effectively? Diabetes Pompe disease Do not break down excess waste Glycogen builds up Can cause cells to choke and die People will this disease lost the ability to speak, walk, etc then they die Can be treated Anderson's disease Abnormal glycogen builds up and can't be broken down Enlarged liver Can be treated Von Gierke's disease Can't break down glycogen to release glucose Hypoglycemia Structure Chitin Component of exoskeleton of insects Polymer of modified glucose molecules Cellulose Main component of plant cell walls Long strings grouped together to form fibers Never branches Linked by 14 bonds Starch vs cellulose Not nutritionally equivalent Body can recognize starch and break it down Hydroxyl groups are on the bottom Body cannot break down cellulose because the hydroxyl group can switch sides Insoluble fiber Cows can break down cellulose because they have a special bacterium Lipids NOT a polymer Hydrophobic Stay grouped together because they do not mix with water Most biologically relevant lipids Fats Phospholipids Steroids Constructed from a glycerol and a fatty acid Fatty acid Long hydrocarbon chain Can vary in number of carbons Saturated or unsaturated Refers to the structure of the hydrocarbon chain Saturated no double bonds present Keeps fats solid at room temperature Molecules are tightly packed together Butter Animal fat "Saturated with Hydrogen" Unsaturated one of more double bonded Carbons A double bond creates a bend Makes them not be able to get so close together Makes fats liquid at room temperature Oils What is an essential fatty acid? A fatty acid we can't produce on our own Our body can synthesize a lot, but not some Example: Omega3 What is a transfat? Mostly manmade Changing an oil that is usually liquid at room temp to be solid at room temp Margarine Unsaturated + hydrogen atoms = trans fats Cis conformation (bent molecule) to trans conformation (straight molecule) Cis = same Trans = across Trans fat raises bad cholesterol and lowers good cholesterol Saturated fat raises bad cholesterol Phospholipids Hydrophobic region Tails Some molecules are repelled by the hydrophobic interior Not allowing things into the cell Hydrophilic Head Makes up cell membranes Head on the outside Tails on the inside Phospholipid bilayer Steroids Characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings Distinguished by different chemical groups attached to the rings Cholesterol Important component of cell membranes Helps keep membrane fluid but also provides structure Precursor from which different steroids are synthesized Estrogen and testosterone Good cholesterol HDL = high density lipoprotein Cholesterol mixed with other lipids and proteins Binds to LDL and flushes it out of the body Bad cholesterol LDL = low density lipoprotein Cholesterol mixed with proteins Tends to get stuck in arteries to make plaque Proteins Nucleic acids Each plays a distinct role Polymer Long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds Building blocks = monomers Variety is effectively limitless Building Anabolism Dehydration reaction Removes a molecule of water Aka condensation of water Forms a covalent bond Breakdown Hydrolysis Creates a water molecule One less molecule of water created than there are monomers DUE SOON: First Mastering Biology assignment due Sunday 9/4/16; there is an in class activity next Friday 9/9/16 print off the worksheet online and bring it to class
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