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Bio_1113_AU16_Week 2

by: Jessy Notetaker

Bio_1113_AU16_Week 2 Biology 1113

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Biology > Biology 1113 > Bio_1113_AU16_Week 2
Jessy Notetaker
GPA 2.8

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Notes for week 2
Biology 1113
Dr. Ball and Dr. Weinstein
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessy Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1113 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Ball and Dr. Weinstein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Biology 1113 in Biology at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Chemistry of Life Con’t.  3.) Moderation of temperature  Water is able to absorb or release large amounts of heat with a slight change in its own  temperature  Due to water's high specific heat  Cities along the coastline are cooler than cities in the desert because the water  can absorb some of that energy  At night it can release the heat it absorbed during the day, so the coast can keep  temperature moderated  Helps organisms maintain and regulate body temperature  4.) Expansion upon freezing  Frozen water is able to float on liquid water  Locked into a crystal­lattice structure  Space for air between molecules  5.) Versatility as a solvent  Polarity of the molecule will help dissolve other polar molecules  Water and salt  Tophat Questions  Water is a polar molecule because of the presence of what?  Polar covalent bonds  Polar covalent bonds hold a single molecule together  Water has an unusually high specific heat. This is directly related to what?  More heat is required to raise the temperature of the water  What types of bonds must be broken to vaporize water?  Hydrogen bond     Carbon: The Backbone of Life  Why is Carbon so special?  Very complex molecule  Very abundant  Electron configuration  Four electrons in its outer shell, allowing it to make up to four bonds  Can form complex carbon skeletons  Polypeptide chain  DNA  Sterol  Able to be directly used as an energy source  The arrangement matters  Isomers­ have the same compounds with the same molecular formula but a different  arrangement of atoms  Different arrangement means different purpose  Different biological properties  Enantiomer​­ mirror image of a molecule, but not the same thing  Enantiomers are critical in the pharmaceutical industry  Over the counter ibuprofen is not all in the pure form your body can use  Prescription ibuprofen is all purified  Takes less time to be absorbed by the body because the boy  doesn't have to convert anything to a usable form  Thalidomide  Used to treat morning sickness in pregnant women in the 1950's  Found severe birth defects  Binds to DNA and keeps it from replicating  Was not tested on pregnant women, so we did not accept  it in the USA  Used today to treat multiple myeloma and leprosy  Functional Groups  Participate in chemical reactions in a predictable manner  Can cause drastic changes in function  Be able to recognize, locate, and define the following functional groups  Hydroxyl group  Carboxyl group  Carbonyl group  Amino group  Sulfhydryl group  Phosphate group  Methyl group  Will return to in macro minerals     The Structure and Function of Large Molecules  These molecules make up all living things  Carbohydrates  Built from sugars  Sweet  Water soluble  Based on size  Names end in "­ose"  "saccharide" = sugar  Monosaccharide  Glucose = most common  Most will have formulas that are a multiple of CH2​O  Disaccharides  Two monosaccharides  Sucrose (table sugar)  Polysaccharides  Several monosaccharides  3 carbons  Aldose  4 Carbons  Ketose  5 carbons  Pentose  6 carbons  Hexose  There are 2 main reasons we make polysaccharides  Storage  Store excess glucose  Plants store excess energy as starch  Polymer of glucose molecules joined by 1­4 linkages  Humans store excess energy as glycogen  Polymer of glucose joined by 1­4 linkages  Highly branched  Allows us to store more in a smaller area  Typically stored in the liver and muscles  Carb loading fills up glycogen storage centers  What problems can occur when you are not able to use/break down  carbs effectively?  Diabetes  Pompe disease  Do not break down excess waste  Glycogen builds up  Can cause cells to choke and die  People will this disease lost the ability to  speak, walk, etc then they die  Can be treated  Anderson's disease  Abnormal glycogen builds up and can't be broken  down  Enlarged liver  Can be treated  Von Gierke's disease  Can't break down glycogen to release glucose  Hypoglycemia     Structure  Chitin  Component of exoskeleton of insects  Polymer of modified glucose molecules  Cellulose  Main component of plant cell walls  Long strings grouped together to form fibers  Never branches  Linked by 1­4 bonds  Starch vs cellulose  Not nutritionally equivalent  Body can recognize starch and break it down  Hydroxyl groups are on the bottom  Body cannot break down cellulose because the hydroxyl group  can switch sides  Insoluble fiber  Cows can break down cellulose because they have a  special bacterium  Lipids  NOT a polymer  Hydrophobic  Stay grouped together because they do not mix with water  Most biologically relevant lipids  Fats  Phospholipids  Steroids  Constructed from a glycerol and a fatty acid  Fatty acid  Long hydrocarbon chain  Can vary in number of carbons  Saturated or unsaturated  Refers to the structure of the hydrocarbon chain  Saturated­ no double bonds present  Keeps fats solid at room temperature  Molecules are tightly packed together  Butter  Animal fat  "Saturated with Hydrogen"  Unsaturated­ one of more double bonded Carbons  A double bond creates a bend  Makes them not be able to get so close together  Makes fats liquid at room temperature  Oils  What is an essential fatty acid?  A fatty acid we can't produce on our own  Our body can synthesize a lot, but not some  Example: Omega­3  What is a trans­fat?  Mostly man­made  Changing an oil that is usually liquid at room temp to be  solid at room temp  Margarine  Unsaturated + hydrogen atoms = trans fats  Cis conformation (bent molecule) to trans conformation  (straight molecule)  Cis = same  Trans = across  Trans fat raises bad cholesterol and lowers good  cholesterol  Saturated fat raises bad cholesterol  Phospholipids  Hydrophobic region  Tails  Some molecules are repelled by the hydrophobic interior  Not allowing things into the cell  Hydrophilic  Head  Makes up cell membranes  Head on the outside  Tails on the inside  Phospholipid bilayer  Steroids  Characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings  Distinguished by different chemical groups attached to the rings  Cholesterol  Important component of cell membranes  Helps keep membrane fluid but also provides structure  Precursor from which different steroids are synthesized  Estrogen and testosterone  Good cholesterol  HDL = high density lipoprotein  Cholesterol mixed with other lipids and proteins  Binds to LDL and flushes it out of the body  Bad cholesterol  LDL = low density lipoprotein  Cholesterol mixed with proteins  Tends to get stuck in arteries to make plaque  Proteins  Nucleic acids  Each plays a distinct role  Polymer  Long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent  bonds  Building blocks = monomers  Variety is effectively limitless  Building  Anabolism  Dehydration reaction  Removes a molecule of water  Aka condensation of water  Forms a covalent bond  Breakdown  Hydrolysis  Creates a water molecule  One less molecule of water created than there are monomers        DUE SOON:​ First Mastering Biology assignment due Sunday 9/4/16; there is an in class activity  next Friday 9/9/16­ print off the worksheet online and bring it to class   


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