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PSYC 3083, Week 2 Notes

by: Madeline Meyer

PSYC 3083, Week 2 Notes PSYC 3083

Madeline Meyer
GPA 3.8

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This week we talked about the basics of counseling, what qualities it takes to become a good counselor, the components that go into having a good therapeutic environment, counseling skills, and pit...
Psychological Counseling
Class Notes
Psychology, counseing
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Meyer on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3083 at Louisiana State University taught by Copeland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Psychological Counseling in Psychology at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Emergence of Civilization 6 Characteristics of Civilization: 1. Urban focus: cities become very important, allowing leisure time, advances in technology, around the urban areas were rural areas  Rural areas: were just as important as urban areas because it provided food  Rural areas -> settlements -> towns -> cities 2. Distinct religious structure: often worshiped God(s) and priests, praying, division of labor appeared due to priests being held to a higher position due to their specialized knowledge, more laws are imposed  Religion creates a world view 3. Political and military structures: bureaucracy and armed forces appear  Bureaucracy: is the political power of a civilization/people where laws are created in order to keep peace and keeps things updates (i.e. roads, new laws, etc.)  Military structures: allows for acquisition of land and means of defense  Within these structures, social mobility rises due to a creation of more high status jobs 4. Social structure based on economic power:  Economic power tends to seep into political power  More $ = better status/job = generational rise in $ and power 5. Writing: allows for record keeping, law formation, generational knowledge to be passed down  REMEMBER, not everyone is literate, only few have the “special knowledge”, meaning manipulation is very easy 6. Artistic and intellectual activity: rise of poetry, creation of sculptures and paintings, technological advances Civilization in Mesopotamia Begins at Created city Temples to the Theocracy is Sumer states by Gods appear created, (3000 BCE) agriculture  Ziggurats where the irrigation (step-laddst God(s) is the temple): 1 ruler Controlled historical MEANING flooding by religious Kingship is levees architecture created that  Sign of is divine in political/econ omic power  Economy is primarily agriculture  There was some trade among neighboring regions  Three major social groups emerged: 1. Nobles 2. Commoners 3. Slaves (often debters) Empires in Mesopotamia 1. Early Dynastic Age (3000-2340 BCE)  Lots of instability  Warfare between city states 2. Akkadian Empire (2340-2100 BCE)  Sargon: the ruler that created unity among cities, forming an empire  With an empire, it allows more land and people, meaning more resources  Once you have an empire, you can expand 3. 3 Dynasty  Instability occurs again as city states begin to want to break away  Created the first written code of law to keep people in check o Code of Hammurabi: very strict laws established on the principle of retaliation, meaning “an eye for an eye” or “a tooth for a tooth” Culture of Mesopotamia 1. Importance of religion  City state is linked to the God(s)  Often thought that the God(s) created humans to serve them and that they didn’t care about the humans  Epic of Gilgamesh: earliest surviving work of poetry and the basis of religious text for the Mesopotamians  Were polytheistic: belief in many Gods  Believed in divination: belief that the King was appointed by the Gods themselves 2. Cultivation of New Arts and Sciences  Writing started about 3000 BCE, allowing record keeping of trade/past events, and production of literature emerged  Cuneiform: “wedge-shaped” the name of their writing  Mathematics: o Created a # system based on 60 (hours, minutes, surface area, geometry) o Geometry o Astronomy The Indus River Valley in South Asia  Good water supply and surplus of agriculture allowed for pockets of settlements to appear  Harappa: (3000 BCE by Ravi River) o Urban culture o Had art and writing o Not fully clear of what happened to the civilization o Likely chance that some traditions of Hinduism were created by Harappa o Traded through the mountains Egyptian Civilization Nile River  Annual, predictable flooding  Surplus of food, meaning more leisure time  Transportation- able to move longer distances faster  Security o Cataracts: shallow parts of the river where boulders and rock jut out of the water, making it difficult to attack through the Nile  Changelessness The Old and Middle Kingdoms  Upper Egypt (the 1 cataract and up) and Lower Egypt united in 3100 BCE Old Kingdom (2686-2125 BCE)  Prosperity (surplus of food) and stability (had good natural barriers to protect from neighboring areas)  Pharoahs appeared o Were thought of as “incarnations of God”, meaning religion and state were interconnected o Considered absolute rulers  Followed Ma’at: where the universal outlook is that truth and justice create a balance in the universe o Many believed one’s job was given to them by God and by doing your job, you were keeping the balance of the universe o Kept everyone in line  Bureaucracy was called Vizier o Is needed to run the state  Divided the Kingdom further into Nomes o Nomes: similar to provinces and parishes, any centralized government has divisions under state o Nomarks: leaders of Nomes, became hereditary rather than elected (showing that power/wealth is accumulated over time) Middle Kingdom (around 2000-1550 BCE)  Changing role of Pharaoh: still seen as a representative God but now more human, shares more power now with Nomarks, creating a diffusion of power  Organized hierchacally 1. Pharaoh: 1 person 2. Upper class (nobles and priests): 1% 3. Merhcants and artisants: 5% 4. Lower class “serfs”: everyone else  Serfs: bound to the land they had been assigned  Majority  Bound by land  Tax payers: cannot question taxes due to them being imposed by God/Pharaoh  Military service/labor force -Both slaves and nonslave serfs due to Ma’at, thinking they were serving their divine purpose, built pyramids Culture of Egypt  Religion: worshipped the sun, believed in the stories of Osiris, Isis, and Seth along with the Book of the Dead  Pyramids: were considered the cities of the dead, was seen as the physical/spiritual body (Ka), was site for mummification o Most famous: Great Pyramid of Giza  Art and Writing: o Functional/integral in ritual (hieroglyphics) o Different forms of art appear 2nd Intermediate Kingdom (1650-1550 BCE)  Pharaoh, due to diffusion of power, is not strong enough for the people anymore  Hykos invasion: rapid action warfar by shootings occur by the Hykos people, which is then successful due to better metal weapons and technology  Bronze age occurs  Introduces the Egyptians to new methods of warfare (battle chariots and the composite bow) and horses  Ruled for 100 years and left  Knowledge was kept in Egypt New Kingdom (1550-1085 BCE)  Kept knowledge from Hykos  Began militarism and imperialism, especially along the Mediterranean coast  Amenhotep IV (1364-1347 BCE) o Forced the worship of just Aten (God of the sun disk) o Introduced first form of monotheism (the belief that there is only one God) o Even changed name to Akhenaten and location of capital o Slaughtered hundreds of priests to assume absolute power  Tutankhamen “King Tut” (1347-1338 BCE) o Restoration of the old Gods o Is the offspring of Amenhotep and Amenhotep’s sister  Ramses II (1279-1213 BCE)  Decline (after 1085 BCE) due to Alexander the Great Daily Life  Marriage o Husband: master of the house o Wife: head of household, responsible for education of children  Women o Labor o Hatshepsut: a female pharaoh of Egypt, was successful in her reign o Arranged marriages  Reproduction  Love  Divorce allowed  Adultery illegal (man often did not get punished) Ancient Chinese Civilization Early settlements  Had regionalized, rather than centralized like in Egypt, agriculture  Had a lack of domesticated animals Yellow and Yangzi River Basins in E. Asia  States originated along the Yellow and Yangzi o Culture develops slower than in Mesopotamia/Indus/Egyptian civilizations o Continued localized agrarian culture o Did not have much domestication of animals o Geography allowed them to be isolated in China  From Yangshao to Longshan cultures o Mongolian Steppe allowed new technology (chariot and use of bronze) to be learned  China started taking off rd  3 Millennium droughts occurred nd o created elaborate agrarian systems after the 2 millennium droughts  had culture, especially through funeral rights, unique style pottery and paintings  had a stratified society  had centralized government/bureaucracy/politics Flood Narratives & Natural Disasters Many similarities due to the belief that there was cultural transference (bringing ideas/things from one culture and carrying it over to another culture, where it is reinterpreted to fit the culture All happened around 3000 BC 1. Gilgamesh: (Sumerian) first epic ever found that is believed to be the foundation for themes in religion we see throughout history; the flood happened due to the Gods being bored/not caring about the people and thought of them as an inconvenience  Utnapishtim was born before Gilgamesh in Shruppak. The God Ea (taking special notice in him) told him secrets, saying, “leave your house, seek life instead of riches.” He warned Utnapishtim that there was going to be a huge flood that is going to be wiping out everyone.  The boat was 120 x 120 cubits = square boat  Ea gave him 7 days to finish boat before flood  People before the flood tend to live a lot longer than the people after the flood  Released the dove and then the raven (bird theme) 2. Genesis: flood epic in the Christian bible; flood happened because God (monotheism) was upset at the humans because of how much evil and sin there was/punishment  Noah: was found special in the eyes of God  7 days of warning  300x50x30 cubits boat = rectangular  Raven came out, then dove (bird theme) 3. Great Flood (China): origins of the Xia Dynasty  The flood of the Yangzi and Yellow river occurs. Gun-Yu approaches a group of men with “magic sand” trying to fix the flooding but fails. Then, another guy Shun comes in, creating districts and scales of measurement (distance). He fails in fixing the floods as well. Then, a guy name Yu (son of Gun) fixes the flood problem through canals and redistribution of Yangzi/Yellow River.


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