New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Endocrinology Notes-Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland

by: Shruti Gautam

Endocrinology Notes-Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland BSCI447

Marketplace > University of Maryland > Biology > BSCI447 > Endocrinology Notes Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland
Shruti Gautam
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for General Endocrine

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive General Endocrine notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Notes cover the functions and hormones of both the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
General Endocrine
Meredith Bohannon
Class Notes
Endocrine system, Endocinology, BSCI447, hypothalamus, pituitary, Gland, MCAT Biology




Popular in General Endocrine

Popular in Biology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shruti Gautam on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI447 at University of Maryland taught by Meredith Bohannon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Endocrine in Biology at University of Maryland.


Reviews for Endocrinology Notes-Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/02/16
Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland  The Hypothalamus is the neural structure the pituitary gland is right under the hypothalamus.  These two structures function together to control the endocrine hormones. The hypothalamus  has other jobs as well.   There are three different regions of the hypothalamus or 3 different types of cells:   1. Paraventricular nucleus→ oxytocin and vasopressin, act on the posterior pituitary gland    → released into systemic circulation   2. Arcuate nucleus→ produce the inhibiting and releasing hormones that act on the anterior  pituitary gland via the hypophyseal portal system     → causes release of stimulating hormones in the anterior pituitary  3. Supraoptic nucleus→ oxytocin and vasopressin, act on the posterior pituitary          → released into systemic circulation   Hypothalamus:   ● Body temp   ● Thirst   ● Satiety   ● Blood pressure   ● Sleep and wake cycles   ● Memory   ● Pinnacle of neuroendocrine connection   ○ Release of several different hormones   GnRH  ● Gonadotropin releasing hormone or GnRH released by the arcuate nucleus of the  hypothalamus→ Luteinizing hormone and Follicle stimulating hormone from anterior  pituitary→ target organ is the gonads which release estrogen, testosterone,  progesterone   ● Gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary make LH and FSH    TRH  ● Thyrotrophin releasing hormone of TRH released by the arcuate nucleus of the  hypothalamus→ TSH or thyroid stimulating hormone from anterior pituitary→ target  organ which is the thyroid gland to stimulate T3 and T4 or iodized thyroxine   ● Another target organ is the mammillary glands which will released prolactin  ● Thyrotrophs in the anterior pituitary make TSH    GHIH or GHRH  ● Growth hormone inhibiting/releasing hormone is released from the arcuate nucleus of  the hypothalamus→ the anterior pituitary then responds by releasing GH which has  many target organs throughout the body  ● Somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary make GH         CRH   ● Corticotropin releasing hormone is released by the arcuate nucleus of the  hypothalamus→ the anterior pituitary then releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)  → the target organ, which is the adrenal gland and more specifically the adrenal cortex,  than releases cortisol  ● Corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary make ACTH    PIH   ● Prolactin Inhibiting hormone is released by the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus→  there is no release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary   ● Lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary make prolactin    The median eminence released the hypothalamic hormones into the anterior pituitary (p ​ art of  the hypophyseal portal system→ ​A portal system consists of 2 capillary plexus or capillary beds  connected via a vein)    Hypothalamic hormones that go to the Posterior Pituitary:​ both made by the supraoptic and  paraventricular nucleus  ADH also known as vasopressin   Oxytocin    None of the hypothalamic hormones will be found in systemic circulation, therefore these  concentrations cannot be measured   All of the hormones released by the anterior pituitary are known as tropic hormones which is the  same as stimulating hormones     There are 3 major axes with the Hypothalamus and Pituitary   1. HPA→ hypothalamic pituitary adrenal    2. HPG → hypothalamic pituitary gonad    3. HPT→ hypothalamic pituitary thyroid  All three of these are regulated via negative feedback loops  The only example of positive feedback would be in the HPG axis  ● 5 days prior to ovulation there is positive feedback of estradiol because of a positive  feedback loop   ● Positive feedback loops cannot be sustained by the body     The body could be in a diseased state: endocrinopathy   There are 3 major types of endocrinopathies in the HP axes   ● Primary: when the target organ isn’t the necessary hormones   ● Secondary: when the pituitary isn’t producing hormones  ● Tertiary: when the hypothalamus isn’t producing hormones   You can’t typically tests for hormones released by the hypothalamus as they are not part of  systemic circulation → this makes it difficult for you to say whether the endocrinopathy is  secondary vs. tertiary   Hormones are released on a circadian rhythm  ● When the there is an increase in cortisol and a decrease in melatonin you will wake up  ● The retina sends light messages to the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain→ this will  tell the body about the time of day it is and release hormones on that basis   Artificial light will change our hormone levels and affect sleep patterns   ● Light will also send messages to the pineal gland and this will affect the melatonin  released   ● GHRH is highest at the beginning of sleep and pulses throughout the night, during the  daytime the hormone pulses but the peak concentration is during night time   ● ACTH also pulsates   If an individual has an endocrinopathy they will most likely receive supplements of the hormone  that the last target organ in the axis will release regardless of if the problem is due to a  secondary or tertiary endocrinopathy   Those people who receive hormone treatment have no pulsations in hormone levels      Posterior Pituitary: ADH   1. Reabsorption of water via V1 receptors in collecting duct   a. Increases the number of aquaporins in the collecting ducts   b. Alcohol shuts down ADH which is why you pee a lot when drunk   2. Vasoconstriction   ADH→ V1 on blood vessels→ IP3 activation→ Ca2+ cascade→ smooth muscle contraction     Regulation of ADH   ● Serum osmolarity  ○ High osmolarity means that blood is viscous which means you want ADH to act   ○ Detected by osmolarity receptors in the hypothalamus   ● Changes in blood pressure   ○ Increase in BP, decrease in ADH   ○ Baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch monitor blood volume   ● Change in O2 and CO2 partial pressure                      


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.