Chem 101, chapter 2 notes
Chem 101, chapter 2 notes Chem 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Herman on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 101 at Ball State University taught by Khisamutdinov in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General, Organic, and Biochemistry for the Health Sciences in Chemistry at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Elements and the structure of the atom Atom o The smallest most fundamental unit of matter Element o A substance composed of one type of atom Compound o Made up of 2 or more elements Nucleus Tight group of protons and neutrons in the center of atom o Electrons are outside of nucleus Atomic mass 1 amu= 1.66 Isotope Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons Some natural some artificial Energy levels Called shells o n=1,2,3 o Max # of e2ectrons in shell 2n Fill levels up from the inside out Group 1A o 1 electron in outer shell Group 2A o 2 electrons in outer most shell Valence electrons o Electrons occupying outer most shell Valence electrons and periodicity Atoms within the group have the same number of valence electrons but they are in different numbered shells Full valence shells are particularly stable o Table 27 Highest means valence electrons Practice problem Give the elctron arrangement for the elements shown below from the lowest to highest: neon, boron, nitrogen o Answer: Boron, nitrogen, neon IONS: Are atoms that have lost or gained on or more valence electrons, giving them a net charge Anything with a charge is an ion Cation: o ion with a positive charge, fewer electrons than protons o Formed by the loss of 1 or more electrons o In general metals form cations by losing electrons o Number of electrons lost = group number (main group elements) o Al has +3 charge Anion: o ion with a negative charge, more electrons than protons o Negatively charge ion formed by the gain of 1 or more reactions o In general nonmetals form anions by losing electrons o Number of electrons gained = group number 8 o (main group elements) Example: o Ca 2+ Protons: 20 Electrons: 18 Ion name: calcium ion 3 o P Protons: 15 Electrons: 18 Ion name: Phosphide ion Radioisotopes: >300 isotopes in nature, 36 of these are radioactive. All isotopes with an atomic number greater than 82 are radioisotopes >2,000 manmade or artificial Unstable isotopes are known as radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes Radiation: 2 forms o Electromagnetic radiation (x rays, gamma rays) Energy Speed of light= 3 x10 m/s Behaves like a particle, or a wave Peak to peak is one full cycle Frequency= Hz/hertz Red has a greater wavelength than purple Rainbow order from right to left Gamma ray> xray> UV > visible > infrared> microwave > radio o Highenergy particles (beta particles and alpha particles) Has mass Table 29 Alpha particle o A slow moving high energy particle consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons (+2 charge) Alpha particle emission o Radioactive decay is demonstrated by nuclear equation Beta paticle o Is a high energy electron whose nuclear symbol is: 0 β −1 o No protons or neutrons Half Life: o The time it takes a smaple fo radioisotop to decay to 1/2 of its original mass Bioeffect and nuclear radiation: o Ionizing radiation dislodges a valence electron from an atom