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GEOS 212 Notes Week 2

by: madelinef

GEOS 212 Notes Week 2 GEOS 212

GPA 3.9

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These are the notes for Week 2 of GEOS 212
Introduction to Oceanography
Joellen Russell
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Oceanography

Popular in Tier 2 Gen Ed

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by madelinef on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOS 212 at University of Arizona taught by Joellen Russell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Oceanography in Tier 2 Gen Ed at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
GEOS 212 Notes Week 2  Plates move together and destroy oceanic crust= subduction zone. Creates continental crust  Plates move apart- create oceanic crust= spreading center  Drawing of subduction zone  Subduction zone ocean/land o Destroys oceanic crust o Factory for continental crust  Where is the old ocean crust destroyed? o Subduction zones NOT in the core or at spreading center!  You do not find subduction zones out in the ocean basins  Subduction zone ocean/ocean o Destroys old oceanic crust o Makes new ocean crust  The Pacific Ocean has almost all subduction zones… ring of fire@ biggest tsunami, volcano, trenches  Peru-Chile trench and Japan Trench VOLCANOES  4 settings o subduction zones o spreading centers o hot spots (Hawaii) o continents pulling apart  Shield volcano- Hawaii, Mauna kea, Iceland shield volcano, Hawaii, Japan o Oceanic crust, basalt=liquid and very hot, continuous eruptions, not explosive or hazardous, lava flows  Strato volcano- Mount Fiji, Andes and cascades, mount saint helens o Continental crust- ocean/continent subduction zone, continent rift/ Hot spots o Steep sides o Andesite= stick/ medium hot o Rare eruptions, explosive, hazardous! o Lava flows, ask/cinders, pyroclastic flows. Typical magma is sticky  Caldera- crater lake in Oregon o So strong the volcano is gone and a lake remains  1500 active volcanoes around the world, about 12 erupting OCEAN HISTORY, SEA LEVEL, and RIVERS  Hawaiian hot spot stays still, plate moves northwest above it  Which basin had the most volcanoes? o Ring of fire  50 million years ago- Early Cenozoic. Australia was closer to Antarctica and India was crashing into Asia  100 million years ago- Cretaceous period. Australia and India were close to Antarctica  200 million years- Jurassic Period- Pangea  Question: When did India collide with Asia> o 50 million years ago  In the future… o 50 million years- no more Mediterranean Sea o 150 million years- Australia combines with Antarctica o 250 million years- Pangea proxima again SEA LEVEL  What causes change? o Ice on land removes water o Ocean temperature warms=expands o Shape of ocean basins deep= not as much water onto land o Why not sea ice> because it does not change sea level. Think of ice cubes in a cup, the water is already displacing so when it melts it just changes the placement of water.  The Northwest passage is open which means less sea ice currently. This affects trade, animals, habitats, and much more but NOT SEA LEVEL!  Post glacial sea level rise- 100m o Recent sea level rise- rides due to warming temperature  Question: Seal level does not depend on o A) melting glaciers and ice caps o B) melting arctic sea ice o C) temperature of the ocean o D) shape of the ocean basin  Future sea level rise- still expansion  Warmer climates have higher sea levels RIVERS  Parts o Headwaters- in mountains o Flood plain- good for agriculture but can flood o Delta- moves into ocean. Slows down so only fine chunks make it out  Flooding o Rain water covers part of floodplain (~10 years) o Lots of rain covers most of floodplain  Major Rives to Know o Missouri, Mississippi- North America o Amazon- South America- largest in the world. o Nile, Congo- Africa o Volga- Russia o Ganges, Yangtze- Asia, drain into Pacific o Colorado and Columbia rivers drain into the pacific  Question: Which river has the biggest outflows? o Amazon  Pangea break up- supercontinent 200 million years ago o Tethys ocean o Formed Atlantic Ocean and Himalaya mountains


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