American Studies 150, Week 3 Lecture Notes
American Studies 150, Week 3 Lecture Notes AMS 150
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Bynum on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMS 150 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Adrian in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Arts And Values in American Studies at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Lecture: “Art of the Ragtime Era” August 29, 2016 Professor: Dr. Morgan 2 sets of changes can be seen in the visual arts: 1. Demographic of cities (immigrants, emigrants, etc.) Changing landscape (skyscrapers, automobiles, etc.) 2. Idealism - Training center in art academies (formal training) - Rigid rules and conventions for painting - Artists expected to paint idealized images, not realism - Represented as abstract contemplation (removed people from stresses of the city) - Classical Greek and Roman roots “Perfectionism” - Ashcan School - Emphasis on close observation of real life scenes - Primary focus: celebrating the lives of ordinary Americans - Paintings deemed “too vulgar” by the art establishment - Would go out on the street, make sketches, and then go back and paint them - Literal daily life scene; spontaneous; unpredictability - Show more skin; more sexual - Working class subjects; immigrant subjects Modernists - Primary focus: built landscape and new technology (architec- ture, bridges, technology, transportation) - Used geometric abstraction to capture sense of motion and dy- namism of the city - Paintings deemed “too abstract” by the art establishment - Was seen as a threat to artistic standards and sanity - “Lewd”; “immoral” - Overlapping of basic forms - New technology helps stimulate sense for this genre - Motion; blurring of lines Lecture: “The Great Mexican Migration” August 31, 2016 Professor: Dr. Jimenez - The ﬁrst Mexicans in the United States were not immigrants; due to the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848, parts of California, New Mexico, Nevada, and Arizona (which were all parts of Mexico) were forfeit to the United States Factors of the Great Mexican Migration *The Mexican Revolution *World War I *Cristero Rebellion *Events of 1919 *Quota Laws *Enganchistas World War I - Decreasing immigration from Europe caused an increasing need for work *1914—1.2 million Europeans immigrated *1915—306,700 Europeans immigrated *1916—110,618 Europeans immigrated - Large migrations of African Americans and Mexicans Events of 1919 - Race riots (employers were avoiding hiring African Americans) - Labor unrest (still being overworked and underpaid after the war ended) - 1918-1921: Red scare = fear and nativism Quota Law of 1921 - This was the ﬁrst time the United States put numerical limits on Immigrations; used 3% of 1910 Census (for example, if 100 immigrants were allowed to come into the United States in 1910, only 3 immigrants would be allowed in 1921) - The Border Patrol was created; the Mexican border becomes a tangible reality, though still permeable Quota Law of 1921 - The immigration limit was changed to 2% of that speciﬁc national group (Italian, Slavic, German, etc.) of 1890 Census - Mexicans and other from the Americas were exempt from this quota law; this sparked efforts against Mexicans, but the United States wanted cheap workers **Enganchistas = Labor Agents - The labor agents didn’t want to give the Mexicans they found jobs for too much but still wanted them to work for cheap Lecture: Material Culture and Consumption September 2, 2016 Professor: Dr. Adrian - Americans: Living in a money economy “Victorian” vs Modern Views *Victorian is a generic term covering approximately 1845 to World War I (older 19th century genteel style; “old fashioned”) (Victorian views vs modern views) 1. Rugged Individualism: Get it and do it yourself [“I”, “ME”] vs Popular New Trends: Follow everyone else [“US”] 2. Spiritual Progress: Progress of church, or for those atheists, progress of mankind vs Inventions: What material changes can we make?; focused more on materialism 3. The Home: “Deiﬁed” (like a deity); center of life; pure vs The Wider World: People wanted to get out and explore everything 4. Character: Internal sense; “stiff” vs Personality: external output; “fun, vibrant” 5. Hard Work: Work 24/7 vs Leisure Time: 8 hours work, 8 hours sleep, 8 hours to yourself 6. Consumption = A Fatal Disease: Consumption was the common name for Tuberculosis, which was relatively incurable vs Consumption = Buying Things: Consumption was not a negative word like it used to be Development of the Department Store - Assortment of items - Fixed prices (no more haggling) - Uncontested safe space for women (acceptable to be not escorted by her husband) - Men’s stores by the doors (get in, get out) How are department stores going to unite the city and the country? Catalogue Shopping - From the Sear’s catalogue, you could buy a buggy, a stove, furniture, an organ (type of instrument), and even a house *Catalogue shopping was a large part of cultural progress; began consumer culture Other things that brought along consumer culture: - 1906: Upton Sinclair writes a book called “The Jungle” about the meat packing industry in Chicago that followed Lithuanian immigrants working there; led to the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act - Motor Cars: Model T was made by Henry Ford; when it was ﬁrst released, it was $600; by 1920, $290; by World War I, over half of all cars in the United States were Model T * Cars changed from individual production to assembly line; however, it was the most boring job because it was repetition of the same thing for 8 hours * Most people kept their jobs making Model Ts because they got paid $5 a day, but some still quit; labor was easily replaced, so many kept their jobs - Electriﬁcation: Electriﬁcation made available all kinds of new things, from vacuums to microwave ovens Changing roles for women in a changing world - Before the Ragtime Era, the belief was that women and men were more fundamentally different than they were alike (also that women were more moral than men); marriage was not about love but about economic security - Before the Ragtime Era, a woman’s dress had these layers (starting from the very underneath layer) 1. Large union suit (underwear) 2. Chemise (used to catch a woman’s sweat; looked like a nightgown) 3. Corset (only worn by the upper class until the beginning of the steel industry, then everyone including children wore corsets) 4. Corset cover 5. Petticoat 6. Hosiery (socks) 7. Shoes 8. Blouse 9. Suit *Everything was designed to make the bust look bigger and the waist look smaller - After about 1920 was known as the time of “ﬂapper and ﬂaming youth”; women’s clothing became more loose, casual, revealing, and “younger”; they began to cut their hair short; they wore makeup and jewelry; and their bathing suits became smaller - “New women” were seen as being radically different * Began to move into businesses and industry * Were extremely radical in their protests to gain voting rights * Began to join the war support; when the war was over, they gain their right to vote * 1920 was the ﬁrst election that women could vote in * 1920 was when women began to see themselves more fundamentally alike than different from men
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