Greek Mythology Notes Week Two
Greek Mythology Notes Week Two CLAS 1100-001
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabby Scott on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLAS 1100-001 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Edwin Lansford in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Greek Mythology (lecture) in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
8/30/16 Class 3 Notes The Olympian Gods Origins of Greek Myth 1.) Iconography distinctive attributes for every God i.e. Apollo with liar The Hittite Empire Catal Huyuk: southern Turkey Goddess from Catal Huyuk: woman figure on throne giving birth with leopards on her side represents fertility and the animals represent royalty and wild game Artemis depicted on the Francois Vase: “Potnia Theron” Artemis with a staa and panther thought to represent and promote wild game 2.) Comparative Study Original speakers from Indo European 5000 BC and spread into Greece around 2000 BC Mature, bearded male= Zeus, Poseidon, or Heites Characteristics of Zeus shown in Jupitor, god of moon IndoEuropean Languages Sky Gods Greek: Zeus Pater= father Zeus Latin: luppiter Sanskrit: Dyauspitr = sky god *piter, pater meaning of father, common reference for greek gods* Zeus is the only god with a clear trace to IndoEuropean language and origin 3.) Analysis of Greek Prehistory Bronze Age Greece; Mycenean Greece Used writing to keep inventory, not literature Michael Ventris deciphered language on Mycenean architecture and was able to figure out that signs were actually sylabols Divine names that appear in Linear B tablets: Zeus~ lord of thunderstorm/bright sky Hera~ wife of Zeus Poseidon~ brother of Zeus; has trident to represent god of Sea Athena~ only goddess with war attire; oitadel acropolis= sit on top of hill and protected its people Artemis~ protector and promoter of game Potnia~ mistress of the beast; god who presides over wild beasts Hermes~ bearded man, over time becomes younger; wing, sandals, and cloak represents traveler Dionysus~ god of wine; recognized by drinking wine cup in hand; surprise to see on list because said to come from area of India full of nymphs and partiers but found to derive from the same time as other Gods *Apollo not on list b/c not known to come from Mycenean time* Homer: Traditional author of the iliad and Odyssey put stories to the Gods Homeric bards: poets who came to courts to tell about stories and Greek myth; where scholars believe stories began and were passed on Sumerians: nonSemtitic people that invented writing Gods: a pantheon of gods Anu: personification of the sky and the source of authority; kingship is from heaven; similarity is Zeus Uraneus: has an initial role is cosmogony and then recedes to background Inanna: dangerous woman; does nothing but screw and fight; goddess of war and love; similarity is Athena and Aphrodite Ereshkigal: God of Dead; wife Persephone: Queen of the Dead Enki: lord of the earth and fresh waters, master of crafts, and trickster; Hephaestus and Prometheus~ blacksmith and trickster Enlil: lord of the storm and a king; similarity is Zeus Babylonians: another empire that conquered all of Mesopotamia; gods seem to come from Hesiod’s Theogony; Theogony means birth of gods Babylonian creation story: Uranus> Conus> Zeus: who then set up new regime of Olympian Gods Marduk: chief deity of Babylonians; founder of cosmos and patrons of Babylonians; four eyes and four ears; his power is manifested in storms; combat with dragon in order to gain power; similar to Zeus Phoenicians: a seafaring people that Ba’al: lord or master Sacrifice of babies to Moloch (‘king’); worship done usually done on mountaintops because believed that’s where gods homed Mount Olympus: throne of Zeus; believed to derive from Phoenician influence Israel: Palestine; biblical religion was born Yahweh: chief deity of the Hebrews; like Marduk and Zeus, he rides forth to battle on the thunderstorm The Epiphany of Mount Sinai Elijah vs the prophets of Ba’al: Eliajh told children to stay true to Yahweh when children were veering towards following Ba’al ba’al followers dance, pray, and cut their own flesh to try to get God to start fire nothing happens Elijah prays and calls down fire from Yahweh; fire comes so proves that Yahweh is God Yahweh appoints Abraham to be Father of the Jewish people supposed to be a promise land for Abraham and his people to go to, ends up getting enslaved in Egypt Yahweh speaks to Moses saying to save his people; Moses tells Egyptian pharaoh “let my people go” or danger will come Yahweh descends lightning and thunder to give Moses code of law for his people Israel means “May El reign”; El is the chief god of the canaanites; thought of as king and chief of all other gods Bethel: “House of El” one of the most important early sanctuaries in Israel 9/1/16 Class 4 Notes Cosmogony: birth of the cosmos; the birth of the universe First beings: Chaos, Gaea, Tartarus, Eros, and their offspring First there was Chaos, “a void” Chaos> Erubus and Nyx, darkness and night> Aether and Hemera, lightness and day Gaea: Mother Earth; Tartarus: under Earth; Eros: desire, usually sexually Gaea= parthenogenic: can produce offspring without help of male Uranus pumps tons of children into Gaea but they are unable to actually come out of the womb because Uranus doesn’t stop From in the womb, son Cronus cuts off Uranus’ genitals and Titans are finally released; Separation of heaven and earth Aphrodite, goddess of sex, is born through Uranus’ severed genitals falling into the sea Gaea with Pontus births many monsters and shape shifters Titans First six Olympian gods are produced by the titans Oceanus: a river that flows around the world The Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires Cyclopes are the blacksmiths of the gods Having dethroned his father, Cronus becomes ruler of the cosmos To avoid getting overthrown, Cronus eats his own children Sister Rhea keeps Zeus from getting eaten by Cronus; when Zeus grows older he forces Cronus to vomit up Zeus’ brothers and sisters, the Olympians The Olympian Gods Zeus starts war with Cronus that lasts 10 years; Zeus destroys Titans and sends them to Tartarus, underworld, for eternal imprisonment Gaea and Tartarus birth Typhoeus to destroy Zeus; fails Finally, Zeus is official king of gods and men
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