Week 2 Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Schroeder on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Richard Fey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
VIDEO: Understanding Social Paradigms (UMA) Theory = a story that tells us the way the world works o Where do we get that story? (from a Paradigm is a kind of story; characterizes stories) o Paradigm building a story/rules that tell how to build a theory How do we pick a book? o Look at different genres (paradigms) and what they involve o Each paradigm has certain elements Romance: two characters that originally have conflict, but somehow surpasses it and falls madly in love James Bond movie: car crashes, guns, explosions, gadgets Different Paradigm elements o Overarching image of what society is like o Level of analysis (how big of an image) o Object of study o the structure around that object Functionalism o Society is like an organism o Body made up of organs o Organism = societies are like bodies, made up of different functioning parts with different purposes o Purpose of the social organs is to keep the institutions alive (functional relations) o We must look for the “organs” and see how they interact with others Conflict theory o Image of stratification Different layers with different characteristics o Can use this to compare success with different jobs o By looking at this social structure, certain interests contribute to where you are in the social success scale o Need to look at these things: Resources Interests Power struggles Outcomes o Ex: education Men vs women going to college (in the past and now) Look at interest in furthering education Obviously unequal but why? Socioeconomic status Buying your way to getting in the top schools Some people have a burden of paying off loans, while others can continue on without worrying about that Symbolic Interactionism o Views society through: Meanings Symbols Cultures Expectations Norms o Look at content that is being communicated o Microlevel sociology Looking at meaning of what people are saying o Looking at different bar signs to see what kind of experience you’re gonna have Classy, country, foreign, etc. Does the sign have a lot of sponsors or is it handcrafted? o Ex: education; looking at Public vs Charter vs Catholic schools Levels of education you can expect Expect how students will dress and interact with others Social Network Analysis o Interested in the structure of how we communicate o Structure: orientation of elements in relation to each other Structure gives meaning to the multiple elements o Operates at a Micro level o Look at the structure of communication; what is the pattern of how people tend to communicate Ex: education: why do people drop out of class while others stay? Quality and placement of your network relations If you form ties with other students in school and teachers More likely to stay If you form ties with others outside of school More likely to leave STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM THE BASICS o A MACROORIENTED (largescale) paradigm o Views society as a complex system with many interdependent parts o The parts work together to promote social stability and order o Major changes to the system’s parts is NOT required or desired; system seeks to maintain it equilibrium KEY ELEMENTS: o SOCIAL STRUCTURE Refers to relatively stable patterns of social behavior found in social institutions o SOCIAL FUNCTION Refers to the consequences of social patterns for society All of our interactions create a reaction in ourselves and others SOCIALCONFLICT PARADIGM THE BASICS: o A MACROORIENTED PARADIGM o Views society as a structured system based on INEQUALITY o SOCIAL CONFLICT between groups over scarce resources in the norm KEY ELEMENTS: o Society is structured in ways to benefit a few at the expense of the majority o Factors such as race, sex, class, and age are linked to SOCIAL INEQUALITY o Dominant group vs. minority group relations Incompatible interests and major differences SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONS Symbolic interactionism is a MICROORIENTED PARADIGM, which means it is effectively used when attempting to understand smallerscale social phenomena THE BASICS: o The view that society is the product of everyday interactions PRINCIPLES: o Society is a complex mosaic of understanding that emerges from the very process of interacting CULTURE All the artifacts of people, both material and nonmaterial DON’T CONFUSE CULTURE WITH SOCIETY Society refers to a group of people, interacting within a given territory, who are guided in their daily lives by their CULTURE o Culture always has: symbols, language, values SYMBOLS o Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture Ex: the American flag and all the meaning that goes behind a piece of cloth Ex: why do you want a sports car? You can never drive it to it’s full potential, but we hold it to a value that changes the symbol o Reality for humans is found in the meaning things carry with them The basis of culture; makes life possible o People must be mindful that meanings vary from culture to culture Why Americans are at times called “ugly” (we are materialistic) o Meanings can even vary greatly within the same group of people Fur coats, confederate flags, etc. LANGUAGE o A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another 35% the literal meaning, English context 65% Paralanguage/ nonverbal implications of how words are said o CULTURAL TRANSMISSION Passing on culture o SAPIRWHORF HYPOTHESIS We know the world only in terms of our language We teach kids to value language o NONVERBAL LANGUAGE Beware of using gestures Middle finger interpreted in different cultures VALUES o Culturally defined standards of desirability, goodness, and beauty, which serve as broad guidelines for social living o MANY inconsistencies o VALUES SUPPORT BELIEFS Specific statements that people hold to be true Capitalism and achievement and success o CORE VALUES Value inconsistency and social change Humanitarianism and “me first” IDEAL VS. REAL CULTURE IDEAL CULTURE o The way things should be o Social patterns mandated by values and norms If you go to college, you will get a good paying job REAL CULTURE o The way things ACTUALLY are o Social patterns that only approximate cultural expectations If you go to college, you still need to work hard to get a good paying job and STILL things might not work out MARRIAGE AS AN EXAMPLE: o How “IDEAL” are the following social patterns? Open lines of communication or closed off? Loving relationship or abusive? “In good times and in bad” or quick to divorce? Equity in gender roles or little change? A few core American values and inconsistencies that go with them EQUALITY o Not as a condition, but as an opportunity ACHIEVEMENT AND SUCCESS o But how are we to feel about marginal groups in America RACISM AND SUPERIORITY o Despite many words to the contrary, in America race, like gender, differentiates INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM o But what about the responsibilities to communities that go along with it? MATERIAL VS. NONMATERIAL CULTURE o Material a table o Nonmaterial craft table, dining table, kitchen table DIVERSITY IN CULTURE IMPACT OF IMMIGRATION o Over 1 million persons came to the US in 2004 Now almost 1.5 million coming in per year We are one of the most multicultural countries in the world o Patchwork quilt Term used to describe America, land of differences DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF CULTURE o HIGH CULTURE Cultural patterns found within a society’s elite groups How we are supposed to leave o POPULAR CULTURE Patterns that are widespread Things that are seen across the board CULTURAL DIVERSITY o There are times when cultural diversity is good for a society, as well as times when it seems to work against “the grain” SUBCULTURES o Groups whose cultural patterns set them apart from wider society Religious cults, innercity teens, cowboys, amish, farmers Not AGAINST the society, just seeking to be recognized COUNTERCULTURES o Groups whose cultural patterns are the great odds with wider society o Doesn’t have to be bad or violently against; or negative o Just trying to change the larger society; history says if bad or good Radical militia groups, the klan, skinhead groups, women’s movement, homeschooling, hippie movement
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