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Week 2 Notes

by: Abbey Schroeder

Week 2 Notes SOC 101

Abbey Schroeder

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These are in class notes on the powerpoint and the lectures. The topics covered this week were paradigms, functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism, social network analysis, structura...
Introduction to Sociology
Dr. Richard Fey
Class Notes
Introduction to Sociology, Soc Sociology Psychology Study Sociological imaginiation social paradigms, socialnetworkanalysis, socialconflictparadigm, symbolicinteractions, idealculture, realculture
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Schroeder on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Richard Fey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
VIDEO: Understanding Social Paradigms (UMA)  Theory = a story that tells us the way the world works o Where do we get that story? (from a Paradigm is a kind of story; characterizes  stories) o Paradigm­ building a story/rules that tell how to build a theory  How do we pick a book? o Look at different genres (paradigms) and what they involve o Each paradigm has certain elements  Romance: two characters that originally have conflict, but somehow  surpasses it and falls madly in love  James Bond movie: car crashes, guns, explosions, gadgets  Different Paradigm elements o Overarching image of what society is like o Level of analysis (how big of an image) o Object of study  o the structure around that object  Functionalism o Society is like an organism o Body­ made up of organs o Organism = societies are like bodies, made up of different functioning parts with  different purposes o Purpose of the social organs is to keep the institutions alive (functional relations) o We must look for the “organs” and see how they interact with others  Conflict theory o Image of stratification  Different layers with different characteristics  o Can use this to compare success with different jobs o By looking at this social structure, certain interests contribute to where you are in  the social success scale o Need to look at these things:  Resources  Interests  Power struggles  Outcomes o Ex: education  Men vs women going to college (in the past and now)  Look at interest in furthering education  Obviously unequal but why?  Socioeconomic status  Buying your way to getting in the top schools  Some people have a burden of paying off loans, while others can  continue on without worrying about that  Symbolic Interactionism o Views society through:   Meanings   Symbols   Cultures   Expectations   Norms o Look at content that is being communicated o Micro­level sociology  Looking at meaning of what people are saying o Looking at different bar signs to see what kind of experience you’re gonna have  Classy, country, foreign, etc.  Does the sign have a lot of sponsors or is it handcrafted?  o Ex: education; looking at Public vs Charter vs Catholic schools  Levels of education you can expect  Expect how students will dress and interact with others  Social Network Analysis o Interested in the structure of how we communicate o Structure: orientation of elements in relation to each other  Structure gives meaning to the multiple elements o Operates at a Micro level o Look at the structure of communication; what is the pattern of how people tend to  communicate   Ex: education: why do people drop out of class while others stay?  Quality and placement of your network relations  If you form ties with other students in school and teachers  More likely to stay  If you form ties with others outside of school  More likely to leave STRUCTURAL ­FUNCTIONALISM  THE BASICS o A MACRO­ORIENTED (large­scale) paradigm o Views society as a complex system with many interdependent parts o The parts work together to promote social stability and order o Major changes to the system’s parts is NOT required or desired; system seeks to  maintain it equilibrium  KEY ELEMENTS: o SOCIAL STRUCTURE   Refers to relatively stable patterns of social behavior found in social  institutions o SOCIAL FUNCTION  Refers to the consequences of social patterns for society  All of our interactions create a reaction in ourselves and others SOCIAL­CONFLICT PARADIGM  THE BASICS: o A MACRO­ORIENTED PARADIGM o Views society as a structured system based on INEQUALITY o SOCIAL CONFLICT between groups over scarce resources in the norm  KEY ELEMENTS: o Society is structured in ways to benefit a few at the expense of the majority o Factors such as race, sex, class, and age are linked to SOCIAL INEQUALITY o Dominant group vs. minority group relations  Incompatible interests and major differences SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONS  Symbolic interactionism is a MICRO­ORIENTED PARADIGM, which means it is  effectively used when attempting to understand smaller­scale social phenomena  THE BASICS: o The view that society is the product of everyday interactions  PRINCIPLES: o Society is a complex mosaic of understanding that emerges from the very process  of interacting CULTURE  All the artifacts of people, both material and nonmaterial  DON’T CONFUSE CULTURE WITH SOCIETY  Society refers to a group of people, interacting within a given territory, who are guided in their daily lives by their CULTURE o Culture always has: symbols, language, values  SYMBOLS o Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share  culture  Ex: the American flag and all the meaning that goes behind a piece of  cloth  Ex: why do you want a sports car? You can never drive it to it’s full  potential, but we hold it to a value that changes the symbol o Reality for humans is found in the meaning things carry with them  The basis of culture; makes life possible o People must be mindful that meanings vary from culture to culture  Why Americans are at times called “ugly” (we are materialistic)  o Meanings can even vary greatly within the same group of people  Fur coats, confederate flags, etc.   LANGUAGE o A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another  35%­ the literal meaning, English context  65%­ Paralanguage/ nonverbal implications of how words are said o CULTURAL TRANSMISSION  Passing on culture o SAPIR­WHORF HYPOTHESIS  We know the world only in terms of our language   We teach kids to value language o NON­VERBAL LANGUAGE  Beware of using gestures  Middle finger interpreted in different cultures  VALUES o Culturally defined standards of desirability, goodness, and beauty, which serve as  broad guidelines for social living o MANY inconsistencies  o VALUES SUPPORT BELIEFS  Specific statements that people hold to be true  Capitalism and achievement and success o CORE VALUES  Value inconsistency and social change  Humanitarianism and “me first” IDEAL VS. REAL CULTURE   IDEAL   CULTURE o The way things should be o Social patterns mandated by values and norms  If you go to college, you will get a good paying job   REAL   CULTURE o The way things ACTUALLY are o Social patterns that only approximate cultural expectations  If you go to college, you still need to work hard to get a good paying job  and STILL things might not work out  MARRIAGE AS AN EXAMPLE: o How “IDEAL” are the following social patterns?  Open lines of communication­ or closed off?  Loving relationship­ or abusive?  “In good times and in bad” ­ or quick to divorce?  Equity in gender roles­ or little change?  A few core American values and inconsistencies that go with them  EQUALITY o Not as a condition, but as an opportunity  ACHIEVEMENT AND SUCCESS o But how are we to feel about marginal groups in America  RACISM AND SUPERIORITY o Despite many words to the contrary, in America race, like gender, differentiates   INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM o But what about the responsibilities to communities that go along with it?  MATERIAL VS. NONMATERIAL CULTURE o Material­ a table o Nonmaterial­ craft table, dining table, kitchen table DIVERSITY IN CULTURE  IMPACT OF IMMIGRATION o Over 1 million persons came to the US in 2004  Now almost 1.5 million coming in per year   We are one of the most multicultural countries in the world o Patchwork quilt  Term used to describe America, land of differences  DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF CULTURE o HIGH CULTURE  Cultural patterns found within a society’s elite groups  How we are supposed to leave o POPULAR CULTURE  Patterns that are widespread  Things that are seen across the board  CULTURAL DIVERSITY o There are times when cultural diversity is good for a society, as well as times  when it seems to work against “the grain”  SUBCULTURES o Groups whose cultural patterns set them apart from wider society  Religious cults, inner­city teens, cowboys, amish, farmers  Not AGAINST the society, just seeking to be recognized  COUNTERCULTURES o Groups whose cultural patterns are the great odds with wider society o Doesn’t have to be bad or violently against; or negative o Just trying to change the larger society; history says if bad or good  Radical militia groups, the klan, skinhead groups, women’s movement,  homeschooling, hippie movement


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